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  • Historical Water Structures & Gardens in Erstwhile Princely state of Marwar

    Historical Water Structures & Gardens in Erstwhile Princely state of Marwar

    Historical Water Structures & Gardens in Erstwhile Princely state of Marwar

    हमारी नई वैबसाइट - भारत का इतिहास -

    Erstwhile Princely state of Marwar was situated in eastern part of Thar desert. There was no perennial river in the whole state. Luni was the longest river which could flow for a few days in rains only. Meethari, Jojari and Gunai Mata were the subsidiary rivers of Luni and could flow hardly for 15 days in a year. Sambhar, Deedwana and Pachpadra were natural lakes in the state but all natural lakes contained salty water which was brackish in test but good for producing salt.

    Lakes, Ponds and Wells

    Though Marwar was scarce of water but people were aware of its importance. They used to collect rain water in ponds and tanks in their houses as well as in fields and forests. Rulers, nobles and wealthy merchants of Marwar built many artificial lakes, water tanks, ponds, wells, step-wells and reservoirs through out the state.

    Bal Samand Lake

    Bal Samand lake is located on Jodhpur - Mandore road, 7 kms from Jodhpur. It was constructed in V.S. 1216 (1159 A.D.) by Parihar chief Balak Rao. Approximately one kilometer long, 50 meters wide and 15 meters deep this lake has been made by storing the rain water coming from the hills. Maharaja Sur Singh later constructed an artistic eight pillared palace with three entrance gates between this lake. He also constructed a Baradari and another small artistic palace near the lake. They have beautifully carved stones, polished with shells and have filigiree work. Near this 60 feet high palace, another small building was made by Sur Singh for his queen. It also had a garden for ladies. Jaswant Singh (II) later planted rose shrubs in this garden. Water was supplied to Gulab Sagar, Fateh Sagar and Sardar Sagar canals from this lake.

    Kaylana Lake

    Located eight kms West of Jodhpur, Kaylana lake was constructed in 1872 by Pratap Singh, the then Prime Minister of Jodhpur. It is spread over 84 square kilometers' area. Earlier this area had palaces and gardens made by Maharaja Bhim Singh and Maharaja Takhat Singh. These were destroyed to make Kaylana lake which takes care of the water supply to the city today also. Also known as Pratap Sagar, the area around this lake was full of wild boars and was a secured hunting place for the royal members. But it has not remained so with the increase in population. Near the lake is a Dak Bungalow of Irrigation department.

    Umed Sagar

    Umed Sagar dam near Kaylana Lake was constructed in 1933 by Maharaja Umed Singh. It is spread over an area of 27 square kilometers.

    Gulab Sagar

    Gulab Sagar water storage was constructed by Pasban Gulab Rai in 1788 A.D., who was a beloved mistress of Maharaja Vijay Singh. Earlier there was another source of water here, called 'Baori', which was converted into Gulab Sagar in the size of 150 x 90 meters. It is Located near Sardar Market in old city area, adjoining to Gulab Rai's palace. Its construction took eight years and a large amount of funds. It has two parts- the smaller one being known as the child of Gulab Sagar. It is said that this part was made in 1835, in the memory of Sher Singh, Gulab Rai's son. Gulab Sagar has carved stairs around it whose beauty can still be seen.

    Fateh Sagar

    Fateh Sagar was made near Merti Gate by Maharaja Vijay Singh in 1778. The size of this pond wis 140 x 75 meters. It was used to get water from its Southern canal linked with Bal Samand as well as Kaylana lake. Beside this is a temple named Ramanuj Kot, belonging to Ramanuj cult of Vaishnavs. This temple was constructed in 1866.


    Ranisar was made in 1459 by Jodha's Queen Jasmade Hadi near Fateh Pole of Mehrangarh. Padmasar was made near it by Queen Padmini of Rao Ganga, daughter of Rana Sanga of Mewar.

    Tapi Baodi

    Tapi Baodi was constructed in 1675 by Tapoji Tejawat. It is 40 feet wide and 250 feet long and located at Hatdiyon Ka Chowk in Bhimji Ka Mohalla. It was constructed in four years with 72 thousand rupees. This longest Baodi of the city was the main source of water in Jodhpur city for more than three decades. It has six beautiful and artistic storeys.

    Jaswant Sagar Dam

    Maharaja Jaswant Singh constructed Jaswant Sagar dam in 1892 near Pichiyak village between Bilara and Bhavi villages of Jodhpur district. Five lakh and fifty thousand rupees were spent on its construction, while its renovation during the Seventh plan took one crore fifty three lakh rupees. The water from this dam is used for irrigating an area of 1780 hectares. The greenest part of Jodhpur receives water from this dam. Boating facilities have also been made available for tourists here.

    Shekhawatji ka Talab

    Shekhawatji ka Talab was constructed by Shekhawat Aantarang De, Queen of Jaswant Singh (I) 450 years back, a mile away from Merti Gate. Surrounded by hills on three sides, this pond is spread in an area of 1000 sq. feet and is approx. 20 feet deep, Jaswant Singh (I) also made a grand palace near it which served as their residence during rainy season. The pond is covered with walls made of red stone, which have stairs on three sides. It also has a Baodi in it. Its water was used in case of shortage of water in the pond.

    This pond has also been mentioned in the autobiography of Prime Minister Pratap Singh of Jodhpur. Maharaja Ram Singh of Jaipur had married Indra Kunwar, sister of Maharaja Takhat Singh and his cousin Kesar Kunwar (daughter of Prithvi Singh). His bridal procession (barat) had stayed in tents near this pond. Palaces of Maharaja Jaswant Singh have now been converted into temples. One of them is the Hanuman temple which also has idols of Lord Rama, Laxman, Sita and a huge Shivlinga. Above the pond is a large dome which is now with the Army. Another small dome can be seen in one corner of the temple, which has no inscription on it. A Satsang Bhawan is also made here a few decades ago.


    Seven kms from Jodhpur, there are many cenotaphs of Singhvi Musahibs of erstwhile Marwar state near Akhaisagar. Akhaisagar was made by Bhim Singh's military commander Akhai Raj Singhvi. It is approximately thirty six feet deep and is formed by collecting the water coming from hills around. The centre of this pond has a stone measure which indicates the water level. Singhvi Akhairaj had no child. On a saint's advice he constructed this pond. After his death his memorial cenotaph was erected near this pond. A few other domes of Singhvis also exist. Akhai Raj's dome is facing Raghunath temple.

    Other Water Structures in in Jodhpur City

    Mahila Bagh stepwell (Baori) near Gulab Sagar was constructed by Gulab Rai in 1780. It is also called a Baodi with four-sided ghats. The Mahila or Mayla Bagh garden near it was also made by Gulab Rai. Later Huson General Hospital was opened in this garden and then a school. Artistic domes surround this step well. One of its parts remains covered with water and has beautiful gates under it. Five lakh rupees were spent on its construction. It was also connected to Gulab Sagar through a tunnel. The famous fair 'Lotiyon Ka Mela' was started after the construction of this Baori. In V.S. 1776, Sukh Dev Tiwari made a stepwell in the precincts of Mehrangarh fort, which is known by his name only. It is made between Vidyashala School and Singhodon ki Bari. Nowdays this place is used for funeral rites. It is an example of architectural excellence. Tuwar ji ka Zhalra was made by Badi Tuwarji, the Queen of Maharaja Abay Singh, in 1805.

    Besides these, there were many other baodis (step-wells) and talabs (ponds) in Jodhpur city, like Chand Baodi, Nai Sarak Baodi, Jalap Baodi, Mandore Baodi, Naparji ki Baodi Gorunda Baodi, Vyas Baodi, Chataniya ki Baodi, Sumnohra Baodi, Anara Baodi, Nainsi Baodi, Hathi Baodi, Dhai Baodi, Idgah Baodi, Kharbuja Baodi, Rajaramji ki Baodi, Vyas Baodi, Shiv Baodi, Panchwa Majisa ki Baodi, Ram Baodi, Raghunath Baodi, Jadeji Zhalra, Shri Nathji ka Zhalra, Gowardhan pond, Gangelav pond, Baiji ka Talab, Naya Talab, Neemla Well, Clock tower well, Gaushala well, lotwali well, Satyanarayan yati's well, Ladji's well, Navchowkiya well, Aasan well, Dauji well, Jaita well, Mutha well, Devkund, Golnadi, Motikund, Mansagar, Surajkund etc. Some of these water structures still exist but Many structures have been destroyed in last one century.

    Gardens and Bagechees

    Mandore Garden

    Mandore Garden is spread in an area of 82 acres. There are no definite clues to say how old this garden is but it surely existed during the reign of Rao Maldeo (1532-1572 A.D.).

    The ruler of Marwar state Rao Maldeo was married with a princess of Jaisalmer state, but he enjoyed his honeymoon with a Daodi (maid servent) instead of princess. When Rao Maldeo was returning to Jodhpur, the princess refused to go along with him. Rao Maldeo was very upset so he destroyed the Bada bag royal garden and cut down hundreds of trees and returned to Jodhpur. When Bhati Rao of Jaisalmer came to know about this incident, he sent his minister to take revenge. The Minister came to Jodhpur and stayed in Mandore garden. After 15 days he left the garden, putting an axe under each tree with a message that we are not like you, we don't cut the trees. The beauty of the garden has been captured on celluloid by many film makers. The fountains, especially the jet fountains are an all-time tourist attraction. One can reach the numerous pools by crossing a garden of Bougainvillea. People can sit in shade on one side of these small pools. These pools get the water of Nagadari River. Summer breeze near these pools gives a new life to people. Above this level is a natural pond known as Nagadari. The Nagpanchami and Veer puri fairs are organised in this garden since 17th century. Nagkunds are worshipped by people on Nag Panchami.

    Miyan Ka Bagh

    In 1643 A.D., the Maharaja Jaswant Singh (I) was called to Agra by Shahjahan, while Khwaja Farasat was sent here for Jodhpur's administration. Khwaja was unable to control the administration and was relieved of the charge in 1647, but he did not return to Agra. After his death, he was buried outside Chandpole gate and his memorial dome was made there. Aurangzeb built two 30 feet high towers here. Maharaja Sur Singh's daughter Inda Kanwar made a step well here, while Sur Singh developed a garden which came to be known as Miyan ka Bagh. Two tombs are made inside the memorial, protected by iron bars. It is said that the vegetables of this garden used to be famous for their size. It is said that once when the prince of Kashmir came here to marry the Jodhpur princess, the ruler of Jodhpur ordered to get one cartful of cauliflower from this garden. The sellers that time charged one silver coin for each bunch of the vegetable. A small Shiva temple can also be seen in this garden.

    Ummed Garden and Zoo

    Like Mandore garden, Umed garden also covers an area of 82 acres. Developed by Maharaja Umed Singh, it has green lawns, towering Ashoka trees, roses and seasonal flowers, museum, fountains, library and a zoo. Five gates were constructed in different directions to enter the garden. The zoo in the garden was inaugurated in 1935 A.D. by the then Viceroy Willingdon. During that time it had a lion, tiger, zebra, ostrich and an emu. A separate cage was made for monkeys. In 1978 'Walk-in Avery' was made where one could see different types of birds. A large cage for bears opposite the Avery, sea birds behind it, pigeons in the cages near it, crocodiles, foxes, deers, lions, leopard etc. educate children and mesmerise people with nature's beauty. Various enclosures of the Zoo were mostly situated on the peripheral portion of the public park. After independence, the management of Umaid Udhyan and the Jodhpur Zoo (situated within) was entrusted to the Superintendent, Garden Department of the Govt. of Rajasthan. Subsequently the management of Jodhpur Zoo was transferred from the Garden Department to the Forest Department in 1956. Onward from 1956; the Jodhpur Zoo is being managed by the forest department of Rajasthan Government. A Public Library, named Sumer Sarvajanik Vachnalaya and a museum named Sardar Sangrahalaya were also opened within the park area. Now almost all wild animals have been transferred to Machia Park.

    Nehru Park

    Spread in an area of 14 acres, Nehru Park was developed as a children's park. It was inaugurated on 7th September, 1966 by the then Chief Minister of state, Shri Mohan Lal Sukhadia. The park gets its beauty from the fountain, pond, swings, flower beds, trees and plants here. Earlier this place had Bakhat Sagar pond. But its form deteriorated and the city's dirty water started collecting here. To solve the problems, its upper portion was converted into Bakhat Sagar residential colony, while the lower portion has this park now.

    Machia Safari Park

    During princely state's time there existed a Machia fort between Jodhpur city and Kayalana lake, where rulers used to come with their family for hunting the wild boars and black bucks. The forest, in which this fort was located, also known as Machia forest. Now, Rajasthan government has developed this forest as safari park which is known as Machia safari park. A Biological Park also has been established in this forest which is called Machia Biological Park. It was conceptualized in the year 1982-83. It is located 8 kms away from Jodhpur railway station on the western side of city. This park is basically the satellite zoo of old heritage zoo of Jodhpur. Machia Biological Park has an area of 41 ha. out of 604 ha area of Machia Forest Block. Almost all wild animals of Umed public park have been transfered to Machia.

    हमारी नई वैबसाइट - भारत का इतिहास -

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