The earliest phase of architectural activity was the offshoot of the virile architectural movement initiated and nurtured during the Gupta period. This tradition continued in the region for centuries. Chouhans, Pratihars, Parmars and Rathores erected thousands of temples in this desert area. Osian, Bhinmal, Dadhimata, Kekind, Kiradu, Varah Shyam and Shiwada temples are the good examples of that perod. By about 700 A.D., all over India, a number of divergent experimental temple shapes had given rise and way to certain viable and almost universal prototypes. Almost uniformly now the temple consisted of a square or rectangular sanctum with a porch in front or, occasionally, a mandapa either attached to the sanctum via a vestibule (antarala) or forming a separate but appurtenant structure in front of the sanctum.
From many points of view the further development beyond this stage and till about 1000 A.D. represents the most important and the most consequential phase in the history of temple-building in India. For after 1000 A.D. or so it was only a matter of carrying on along lines already firmly etched; the most fascinating part consists of the first tentative and modest prototypes developing into the initial monumental edifices which started being erected from about 950 A.D.
This development from Parashurameshvar to Lingaraja, all at Bhubaneshvar in Orissa, from the early and small temples at Kanchipuram to Brihadlshvar (at Thanjavur) and Naresar (near Gwalior) to Kandariya (at Khajuraho) is echoed in the case of Rajasthan in the progression from the earlier temples at Osian to those at Kiradu west of Barmer. One feels inclined to question Kiradu's being mentioned in the context of the other undeniably far more formidable agiants, let us not loose sight of the fact of the desert's limited resources as also of the fact of Kiradu having remained rather under-rated, of which more, later. While most developments were thus in this continuum of from small to big, regional stylistic preferences and patronage made for quite some differences, too. Barring some exceptions, it was generaliy a spaced out and gradual movement from a Parashurameshvar (650 A.D.) to a Mukteshvara (C 950 A.D.) to a Raja Rani (C 1025 A.D.) and, more characteristically, to a Lingaraja (C 1100 A.D.) as in the case of Orissa, or, from the Osian to Kekind to Kiradu via Nagda as in Rajasthan. Though most of the temples have common features, a careful study of the architectural details presented in these temples makes one to conclude that two groups of temples existed in Rajasthan during the pre-medieval and post-medieval periods. One group included in it Sun temples, Harihar temple and Mahavir temple at Osia, Vishnu temple at Mandor, Vishnu temple at Buchkala, Kameshwar temple at Auwa, Harshnath temple at Sikar, the temple at Nadole, the Sun temple, called Budhdit in Kota area and several others of this type in Mehrangarh, Chittaurgarh etc.
All these temples, range in point of antiquity from the pre medieval to the post-medieval period. Most of these temples stand on a high, moulded platform with very few exceptions.These temples are mostly Latina in form. Standing on a platform as they do, these are predominently 'tri-anga' on plan. The platform (Jagati) of these temples is generally constituted by an amplified Vedi bandha, sometimes showing a decoration of large niches at intervals on the Kumbha. The Mula-prasada has, as a rule, no pitha. The door frame of all such temples is very richly decorated. The figural and foliate ornamentation are both rich and varied. All the above, in brief, applies to the early temples of the 1st group. In the middle type of temples, the decoration of pillars is finer and in the door-frame a few new shakhas like the vyala sakhas are introduced and these cover the whole door-frame. The temples at Auwa and Bhundana amply illustrate this characteristic feature.
Beginning modestly in the 8th century as the local rulers of Mandore and Jalore, the Pratiharas rose to imperial status in the 9th and Bhoja-I shifted his capital to Kannauj after his accession to the throne in 836 A.D. though the Pratiharas maintained their links with Rajasthan. The wealth which (the early temples at Osian, Abaneri and Chittaurgarh represent remains unparalleled and along wiln some temples of the 10th century they form an invaluable corpus for anyone seeking to study the phenomenon of the transformation which the temple in North India underwent during 8th to 10th centuries.
Osian, in particular, offers a complete series of temples built over four centuries starting with the 8th of Abaneri only the shell of othe sanctum remains-the makeshift mandapa being of later erection-along with the tiered terrace on which a wonderful and large temple unit must have once stood. The devolution of the Pratihara style in Central India and Rajasthan went along parallel lines. In Rajasthan also the progression from Osian to Kekind-Harshanath-Rajorgarh, though substantial, was still within the bounds of legitimate evolution.
This transition also occurred over about a century and a half, from C 800 A.D; to C 950 A.D.The temples of southern Rajasthan also conformed to the Osian-Kekind continuum upto a point of time. Thus, the Kameshvara at Auwa near Pali (C 850 A.D.) had, despite an ornate two-storeyed pyramidical superstructure, a distinct affinity with the 'proper' Gurjara Pratihara lineage.
The same may be said of Varman (C 875 A.D.) located even further to the south, and the Lakuleesh at Ekiingjl (872 A.D.) north of Udaipur.If the temples of the Osian group are one stage removed from the Gupta models and those of the Kekind type, two, then, these temples are three stages so removed and well on the way to giving rise to the Chandella and Kachchhapaghata norms on the one hand, figuratively as well as geographically, and the Solanki one, on the other.
The Someshvara at Kiradu built around 1000 A.D. is important as it is, perhaps, the last major surviving example of a viable admixture of the Gurjara Pratihara and the emerging Solanki features: it manages to combine the strength of the former with the delicacy of the latter. It represents, perhaps, the last successful stand of the Gurjara Pratihara vogue before the flamboyant Solanki one will appear to take everything in its sweep. Of the group of significant temples at Kiradu, it may also be said that they have, unfortunately, remained rather underrated. In fact they are as rewarding, if not more, than the famous Modhera temple in Gujarat which was erected soon after, around 1025 A.D. In sculplure, particularly, Kiradu scores over Modhera. Kiradu in fact possesses some of the finest post-1000 A.D. sculpture in India.
Having thus distinguished the Pratihara style of Rajasthan (Maha-Maru) from that of the lemple of upper Gujarat and south-western Rajasthan of the 8th-9th centuries (Maha-Gurjara), Dhaky then goes on to draw a demarcation line between the two and describe, first, a Maha-Gurjara foray into the Maha-Maru domain (as seen at Osian, Merta Road and Harsha near Bilara, in the 10th century) and then, a Maha-Maru rejoinder (as witnessed at Kiradu, Bhinmal, Chandravati and Ahar, at the close of the 10th century.) It is out of this clash or "embrace" of the 'virile and handsome'. With due deference to Dhaky it may perhaps be permissible to suggest that inspite of differences in terms of some details, the developments in temple building In Rajasthan and Gujarat over C 700- C 1000 A.D. do not merit to be regarded as two contrary and clashing movements but rather as two neighbouring and parallel developmems progressing by degrees from similar starting points to the same denounement.
To this line of thinking the two movements will appear to be basically congruent at various stages in their careers. Roda, even though spartan in comparison, answers Osian; Muni Bawa, Kekind, Trinetreshvara and Kota; Jagat, while Miodera following close on the heels of Kiradu represents the ultimate and utter triumph of the Solanki features all over Gujarat and over most areas of Rajasthan, too, in an age when politically also the Soliinkis came to hold sway over southern Rajasthan. The period from 1000 A.D. onward saw in Rajasthan supremacy of certain Rajput powers like the Chauhans of Sakambhari, Sikar, Ajmer and Nadol; the Parmars of Abu and the Guhilas of Dungarpur, Banswara, Khed and Mewar, under whom the architectural activity found its expression in temples of various faiths and styles. Bhatis of Jaisalmer, the Rathors of Marwar, the Yaduvanshis of East Rajasthan and Badgujars etc. also encouraged temple activities. The post 1000 A.D. period is, by contrast, much less exciting because it is all so predictable- the essential features are all fixed and the structures, too, are all, more or less, copies of a model. Elsewhere in Rajasthan nothing much of interest seems to have taken place unless we take that the monuments were pillaged or razed to the ground.
Chauhan Vigraharaja IV's college at Ajmer was indeed thus converted into the Dhai-din-ka-Jhonpra. Topkhana at Jalore offers another example. Of the post-1300 A.D. or Rajput period also we do not have to speak at any length. The massive and extensive 'Chaumukha' temple at Ranakpur (l438 A.D.) is, however, a most remarkable monument. It is saved from the overripe feel of Delwara by virtue of its vast spaces and striking heights and the complex is also well served by its scenic location. In the 17th century several good architects worked at Merta, Pali, Jalore, Nagaur, etc. This is borne out from the epigraphs available from these places. To quote a few instances, from an epigraph dated V.S. 1665from Kekind onformation available about the sutradhara Todara. The epigraph from Merta dated V.S. 1677 mentions in a sutradhara Suja. From an epigraph at Jalore dated V.S. 1683, we have a reference to sutradhara Uddharan and his sons Todara, Isar, Taha, etc.
Sculptural work in Temples
The earlier sculptural works of the times of the Mauryas, the Shungas and the Kushans left their impact in the blending of the plastic art of the country in the later ages to such a high perfection that the half closed elongated eyes puffed and highly developed breasts, the slim waists, the broad hips, transparent draperies, rich and intricate jewellery, various styles of coiffeurs, swinging pendents from the ears, and leaning curvature of the body as a whole all characterstics assembled into a splendrous synthesis in the classical renaissance. Through a continuity of a thousand years from Maurya's to Gupta's various foreign races came into the country. The north-western border of Rajasthan was the only way for the attacks of the barbarian hordes— The Hunas, Parthians, Seythians and Shakas. The Central Asian Turks ousted the wild tribes from Afganistan and Northern Punjab, who also in turn entered Rajasthan and settled at various places. It became necessary, for the local inhabitants to maintain certain cohesive order of relation, based on Dharma. The invocations of God, through construction of temples, became necessary. As time passed the social assimilation of the Hunas, the Gurjaras and the Rajputs resulted in the acceptance of Hinduism, and faith in the supreme, which culturally led to the worship of various forms of deities such as Shiva, Shakti, Vishnu, Surya, Ganesha and their respective consorts, children and attendants. The temples built by the Gurjara-Pratiharas at Abaneri and Nakti Mata temple in Jaipur district, and Osian in Marwar, are the clear evidence of their high aesthetic taste. In spirit, in the poetic symbolism, in the idealistic anatomy of human figures, in the expression through the medium of amorous and erotic themes, the sculptures in the above temples may fairly be said as the legacy of the Gupta traditions.
Sculpture of this period has iconographical importance and the images have dynamic artistic movements, the innocent divine vulgarity, stupendous forms and the action of the chisel. The chisel of the sculptor moved from simplest forms of the earlier temples of Osian and Mandore and went through the intricate decorations, exquisite fineness at Kiradu and reached its zenith in Delwara temples of Abu and Ranakpur. Beautifully erected temples at Osian, Buchkala and Mandore (Jodhpur district), Goth-Manglod and Kekind (Nagaur district) and Bhinmal and Shiwada (Jalore district) were not only full of vigour and poise but were also gems of architecture. Brahmani Mata temple is also a post Gupta period at Nagaur.
Pratihars also constructed new temples and rebuilt the Gupta's temples but unfortunately these monuments suffered heavily at the hands of early Muslim hordes. Parmaras built the group temples of Kiradu (Barmer district), Vishnu temple and Sanskrit Paathshala (Jalore district). These temples are superb creations of that time. Chauhans built Somnath temple and Nadole temple (Pali district) and Sanchore, Raamseen and Sundhamata temples (Jalore district). These temples are known for their sculptured decoration and architectural richness. Rathores built many temples all over Marwar. Banshiwale ka Mandir at Nagaur, Chaturbhuj temple at Merta, temples of Ghanshyamji, Gangshyamji, Kunj Bihariji, Raj Ranchhodji at Jodhpur and many more other are the prominent temples built by Rathores.
Erotic scenes play a most prominent role in Indian art. A beautiful woman was generally regarded at the highest bliss to be hoped for on the earth as well as in the lower heavens. Kamakala (the art of sex) was considered to be one of the sixty four arts, therefore, as a part of education it was openly shown through sculptures in sexual poses even on walls of temples. The depictions of Kamashastra, as a matter of fact, opened a way for the development of music, dance and painting. In the absence of any of these it was difficult to reach the mystery of the 'Rasa'. Hence the sculptor was obliged to carve the figures of the Yakshas and Yakshinis, and Gandharvas (the heavenly musicians), types of ladies and various dancing poses all around the walls of the temples.
The cult of Shaktas emphasised on the worship of phallus and vagina for attainment of salvation and the concept consequently inspired the artist to carve out poses of sexual exercises and the numerous beautiful poses of females in nudity. The Gods were also shown with their consorts in various amorous poses.The nude and seminude representations have also been found on the temples of Marwar at Osian, Mandore, Kiradu, Chandrawati and Ranakpur.
Hindu Temples of Pre-Rathore Period
Osian is situated 58 kms from Jodhpur. The temples at Osian exhibit a wide range of rich variety and excellence of medieval sculpture. The earliest temples erected by the Abhira kings are those of three Harihar temples of 8th century. Incarnations of Vishnu, Krishna's life, Gods of the Vedic hymns-vayu, Chandra, Surya, Kubera, Indra, Varuna, the battle between the Gods and Asuras, the Navgrahas are elaborately sculptured on the outer walls of the temples. In the Jain temple of Mahavir, there is an inscription of Vatsa Raj of the Gurjara Pratihar dynasty who, in the middle of eighth century, established Gurjara supremacy in the cities of Osian, Bhinmal and Mandore. The temple dedicated to Mahavir comprises of a richly decorated Toran leading to an open porch a closed hall and the sanctum. The Sun temple show the height of the power of Gurjars who enshrined the God 'Sun' brought from Central Asia.
The Sachiya Mata temple very late, according to the inscripions in the temple of V.S. 1236-34-45, has been disfigured by rennovations and ail sorts of paints. At Osian many temples with fine sculptures attract the visitors. Two sculptures particularly attract the visitors - one depicts a daughter of the Abhiras with her charming poise and attractive body. The second sculpture is that of a woman with a bow, with her ''proud defiant face bent backwards to complete the curving arch of her body.'' There are sculptures found at many other places also untouched by the analyst. No doubt, the State is replete with specimens of frescoes, paintings, sculptures and the like yet many of the specimens were destroyed during the course of numerous invasions 'the Sword arm of India' had to face from time to time.
Kiradu (Barmer District)
The dilapidated temples of 11-12 centuries are situated about 124 miles from Jodhpur and 16 miles north-west of Banner. An inscription of V.S. 1219 incised on the porch wall of The temple of Someshwar reveals that Sindhu Raj Parmar was the chief of Marwar. The other two inscriptions of 1209 and 1235 show that Solankis of Gujrat- Kumarpal and Bhimdeva were the rulers of Marwar and that the old name of the place was Kiratkupa. Someshwar temple is the biggest of all the other four smaller shrines of Shiva, and Vishnu. The vase and flower motif, carved on pillars, is best seen in the main temple of Someshwar. The exterior of the shrine consists of various scenes from the Krishna's life and Ramayana. The Siva temple close by also presents scenes from the Ramayana. A number of fragmentary pieces have been exhibited in the Sardar Museum at Jodhpur which are quite lovely and throw a light on the dresses and ornaments of that period.
Sire Mandir, Jalore
Sire Mandir, Jalore is lacated at Kanyagiri hills near Jalore town. This is a highest Nath chair of Marwar region, that is why it is called Sire Mandir. It is said that yogi Jallandharnath did meditation at this place. The place is also associated with certain miracles. Parmar king Rao Ratansingh built a Shiv temple here which is known as Rataneshwar Mahadev Mandir. Maharaja Mansingh of Jodhpur renovated this temple on suggestions given by hermit Ayas Dev Nath. A water reservior (Jhalara), two Wells (Nirmal Jalkoop and Chandankoop), meditation cave (Bhanwar Gupha), palaces for ladies and jents and other constructions can be seen even today.
Jagnath Mahadeo Temlpe, Jalore
This temple was constructed by Chauhan Pincess Rudal devi in the reign of his brother Samar singh (1182-1207). Many stone inscriptions pertaining to this event can be seen here. Chauhan ruler Chachag deo has mentioned about this temple in his stone inscription of V.S. 1326 at Sundha. This temple is located about 20 kms far from Jalor district head quarter.
Apeshwar Mahadev temple, Ramseen
Apeshwar Mahadev temple at Ramseen in Jalore district, was built in 13th century A.D. by Songara Chauhan rulers of Jalore. It is a chariot shaped temple. A five feet statue of Lord Shiva is worshipped in the temple. The temple has been renovated many times. In this process a large number of old statues have been destroyed.
Varah shyam Temple, Bhinmal
This is also a old temple. A seven feet high and 2.5 feet wide idole of Lord Varah (incarnation of lord Vishnu) is worshipped in the temple. This is a post Gupta idole and must be of Pratihara period of history.
Sundha Mata Temple, Jaswantpura
This "Shakt tantrik peeth" is said to be very old. It is located in a cave on Sundha hill in Jalore district. Now a statue of Chamunda Mata, carved on a cave wall is worshipped here. An adjoinig cave is known as Bhur-bhuvah-swah-eshwar temple and dedicated to Lakulish sect of Shaivism. An idole of Lord shiva is worshipped in this cave. A reference about this temple is available in Skand Purana of 7th centuray A.D.
Rameshwar Mahadev Temple, Jodhpur
The Rameshwar Shivalaya near Surajkund outside Chandpole is considered to be a Siddh peeth. It is said that the Shivling here is Jyotirmay Ling, which was brought and established here by a saint in 1250. The saint took eternal meditation here the memorial of which is still there in the verandah of the temple. During Rao Maldeo's reign in 1538, Seth Rama Maheshwari Mutha constructed a small temple here. In 1544, the Pathan soldiers of Sher Shah Suri attacked this temple. Maharaja Sur Singh renovated the temple in 1615 and also constructed Surajkund and a bathroom.In 1644 idols of Shiv Panchayat and other gods and goddesses were established here. The present temple was made by Maharaja Jaswant Singh in 1651. During Maharaja Ajit Singh's reign when Nawab Tewar Beig attacked the temple, Pujari Jagan Purush took the Jyotirlinga to his home. Many constructions were done in the temple during Maharaja Takhat Singh's reign in 1844 and Maharaja Jaswant Singh's reign in 1876. Renovation was also done during Maharaja Umed Singh's reign. Milk, sandalwood and Ved Mantras are offered to this Jyotirlinga.
Hindu Temples of Rathore Period
There are many temples in Jodhpur city, built under Rathore rule but the temples of Kunj Behari, Ghanshyam, Balkrishna and Ranchhodji, Ramdeoji and Gajanandji are the most well known. Other temples are Tija Maji ka Mandir, Nazirji ka mandir and Deonathji ka mandir (Mahamandir).
Gang Shyamji Temple
Rao Ganga (1515 - 31 A.D.) was married to Padamawati, daughter of Rao Jagmal of Sirohi. The statue of Krishna that Jagmal worshipped was very much liked by Princess Padmawati. After marriage, while leaving Sirohi, Padamawati asked her father for the statue but Jagmal had to refuse because he also loved this statue very much. Then Padmawati asked Gangaji to take the statue from Jagmal in dowry. Jagmal gave this statue to Gangaji. He established the statue in Mehrangarh fort and it came to be known as GangShyamji. After some a big temple was built for it in Old Dhan Mandi which is now known as GangShyamji temple.In 1679, Aurangzeb's military commander Tebar Beig destroyed the temple and constructed a mosque. Maharaja Ajit Singh (1707-24 A.D.) made five temples at that place. Gang Shyamji Temple was surrounded by four other temples. In 1760 Maharaja Vijai Singh renovated it and converted it into a big temple. In 1929, Maharaja Umed Singh again renovated the temple and got gold work done on the main door.
Ghan Shyamji temple is located in Juni Mandi, near Gang Shyamji temple. When Gang Shyamji was brought to Jodhpur, after a few days in the fort, the statue was kept in Ghan Shyamji temple. Present Ghanshyam Ji temple was built by Maharaja Ajit Singh. Having large domes, this temple is made of red sandstone. A stone inscription in the temple gives the date of its foundation, as 1718 A.D. Inside the temple, the stones have SriKrishna and Gopis carved on them.
Kunj Bihari Temple
Kunj Bihari Temple in Katla Bazar was built by Maharaja Vijai Singh's Paswan Gulab Rai in 1779 A.D.; She was a Vaishnav follower of Gokuliya Gosains. Kunj Bihari seems to be a replica of Ghanshyamji temple. The top of the temple and its entrance are examples of architectural excellence. On left of the entrance are massive elephants. On the entrance is a statue of Meera facing towards Lord Krishna in Garbhgriha (Central hall). This statue was earlier established in Sita Ram temple in Kabutron ka Chowk. The Sita Ram temple and Hanuman temple of Mandore are said to be parts of Kunj Bihari temple and expenditure of these two is also borne by the Kunj Bihari temple's funds. This is one of the grand temples of Jodhpur. Pooja is performed six times a day. Special functions are arranged on Janmashtmi, Annkut, Diwali, Holi, Radha Ashtmi etc. The temple gates are opened twice a day from 6.00 a.m. to 12.00 noon and from 6.00 pm till midnight.
Raj Ranchhodji Temple
Raj Ranchhodji temple was built by Queen Jadechi Rajkanwar after the death of her husband Maharaja Jaswant Singh. Rajkanwar was the daughter of king Jamvibha. At the age of nine, in 1854 A.D. She was married to Prince Jaswant Singh. Jaswant Singh did not go for the marriage himself to Jamnagar, but sent his sword, with which the princess got married. After marriage the princess came to Jodhpur and then went to Jamnagar after a few days. After four years at the age of thirteen she came to Jodhpur. Once entering the fort, she never came out of it. That time this temple was made outside the city wall on a high dune near Baiji Ka Talab. By including the first name of the queen 'Raj' this temple became Raj Ranchhodji Temple. It was completed in 1905.
Rasik Bihari Temple
Rasik Bihari temple is known more as Nainiji temple. Made of red and white stone, this temple is constructed on a 17 feet high rectangular platform on Udai Mandir road. The Sabha Mandaps are made on red sandstone pillars. The Garbhgriha is surrounded by a gallery (Parikrama), made of white stones. The temple has statues of Shiv Panchayatan and Sun on seven horses. The open space between the temples has a white marble statue of Kamnandi. According to the inscription on it, it was brought by Maharaja Jaswant Singh in 1885 A.D. The temple is devoted to Rasik Bihari (Lord Krishna) and Goddess Radha. It has statues of Lord Vishnu, Garuda and Hanumanji on both sides of its doors. On one part of the main door Adi Vinayak Ganeshji can be seen. This temple has been taken over by the Archaeological Survey of India.
Maharaja Man Singh built this temple to show respect towards his guru Aayas Dev Nath. This huge temple is located at some distance out of the old city near Merti Gate. The foundation for this temple was laid on 9th April 1804 and it was completed on 4th February 1805, with a budget of 10 lakh rupees. The main temple is made on a massive platform and approximately 100 artistic pillars support the ceiling. The Garbhgriha has a white marble seating space with a statue of Jalandhar Nathji on it. The interior portion has beautiful pictures of 84 yogasanas and famous Nath yogis. The main dome of the temple is surrounded by other smaller domes. Two beautiful palaces have also been made in the temple compound. In one resided Nathji Maharaj and the other was for the holy spirits of earlier yogis. There is a large bed in this palace and it is said that the holy spirits come and rest on this.The carving in the temple and palaces was done from a gold instrument and still retains its beauty. The designer glasses wall paintings and shell polish of the temple have a timeless beauty. At the ground floor of the palaces there are stables and Toshakhana etc. Some important inscriptions have also been found from the temple. One inscription says that it was the duty of the temple to save the life of anybody who took refuge here. One part of the temple has the cremation ground of hermits. It also has some memorials. Mahamandir has a wall surrounding it and giving it the look of a fortess.
Maharaja Man Singh built Udai Mandir for Bhim Nath near Merti gate. It is a great building from architectural point of view. It has big basements and two tunnels, one going to Mahamandir and the other to the fort. The left of the temple has Udayeshwar Shiv Temple with a well nearby. This well was in use for around 150 years, but later it was buried.A few yards away from Udai Mandir is a haveli called 'Udai Mandir ka Aasan.' The married Nath hermits stayed in this haveli. There are two gates of this haveli and it has three storeys.
Sheetla Mata temple
Kaga Sheetla Mata temple is approximately 200 years old. The statue which is now seen here was earlier established in Mehrangarh fort. It is said that Maharaja Vijay Singh's son Sardar Singh died of measles. Maharaja ordered that the statue be destroyed under elephant's feet and thrown in a deserted place. The ministers threw the statue in the hills of Kaga. One day the wife of a gardener dreamt that the statue be established there only. The lady did as she dreamt and slowly the followers kept increasing. People from nearby areas started worshipping the goddesses methodically.When the King heard of this, he wanted to bring the goddess back to the fort, but the royal priest said that it was not possible. Then the King went walking to the temple with his family and begged for pardon. He built a big temple here.
Hall of Deities
The hall of Deities at Mandore, was built during the reign of Maharaja Ajit Singh and his son Maharaja Abhay Singh. Before carving the statues on rocks in this hall, their models were made on small stones, which have now been kept in the Mandore museum. This hall is supposed to be the residence of 33 crore gods and godesses. One huge rock has been cut to make 15 statues including those of Chamundaji, Kankali (Mahishasur Mardini), Gosainji, Rawal Mallinathji, Pabuji, Ramdeo, Hadbu, Meha, Goga, Bramhaji, Suryaji, Ramchandrji, Krishna, Mahdeo and Jalandhar Nathji.
Kala Gora Bhairon : Near the Hall of Dieties are the statues of Kala - Gora Bhairon and Vinayakji. These three statues have also been carved on a huge rock, during the reign of Maharaja Ajit Singh (1707 - 24). Kala Bhairon is on the left while Gora Bhairon has been carved on the right with women fanning them. In the centre is Vinayakji. Both the Bhairon statues have four arms, holding a dagger, Trishul, drum and a skull. Over the heads are huge umbrellas with their mount and a dog under their feet. Gora Bhairon is offered dry fruits and sweets while Kala Bhairon is offered meat and liquor. The Vinayak statue between the two is holding Laddu, Lotus, Sword and an axe in four hands. Riddhi and Siddhi have been carved on his sides, a snake around his neck and his mount, a mouse near his feet. Many more temples in modern time have been built in Jodhpur city. "Shanishchar Ji Ka Than" on the road from Jalori Gate to Siwanchi Gate, "Ganesh Temple at Ratanada", "Shiv Temple at Ratanada", "Kharanana Devi Temple" are very famous among them.
Temples at Meharangarh fort
Rathore rulers of Jodhpur erected many historical temples in Mehrangarh fort. Descrption has been given in a separate article- "The Forts and Palaces of Marwar".