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  • Havelis, Shrines and cenotaphs in Marwar

    Havelis, Shrines and cenotaphs in Marwar

    Havelis, Shrines and cenotaphs in Marwar

    हमारी नई वैबसाइट - भारत का इतिहास -

    Historical monuments include forts, palaces, Havelis, shrines, cenotaphs ,etc. Erstwhile Marwar principality of Thar desert was quite rich in this field. We have given a brief account of forts and palaces of this region. In this article a breiff account of Havelis, Shrines and cenotaphs is nentioned. Rulers of Mawar, Jagirdars and nobels, wealthy merchants and other people got constructed many buildings in the area which have immense historical importance.


    While the rulers were building palaces, the nobles and wealthy merchants of marwar built big residences which were called havelis (mansions), structured around a courtyard or a series of courtyards, with a zenana for the women, and a segregated front area strictly for male visitors. A number of beautiful havelis came up in almost every major Rajasthani prinspality.In 18th and 19th century almost every noble of Jodhpur state, got constucted his haveli in Jodhpur city for being the capital of the Marwar state. These havelis were known after their thikana, like- Pokran Haveli, Nimaj Haveli, Ras haveli, etc. Later on these havelis were called House, like Khejarla house, Asop house, Jhalamand house, Jasol house, ettc. There are so many old style havelis in jodhpur city. Most of them are of mediveal and modern period.

    Pokaran haveli, Asop haveli, Rakhi haveli, Pal Haveli, Pushya Nakshtra haveli, Haidar Building, Gol Building, Zawahar Khana, Udaimandir ka Aasan, Badi Miyan ki Haveli, Shyam Manohar Prabhu ki haveli (Chaupasani Temple), are famous havelis of Johpur city. Phalodi is also famous for havelis. Haveli of Motilal Amarchand Kochar, Haveli of Sangi das Thanvi, Haveli of Phool Chand Golechha, Haveli of Lal Chand Dhaddha, Haveli of Bachhawats and Havelis of Tatia family are well known havelis of Phalodi and are full of rich architect. Raj Singh was the prime Minister of Maharaja Gaj Singh and Maharaja Jaswant Singh (I). He costructed a haveli in Jodhpur, Now it is known as Asop Ki Haweli.It is located beyond Ada Bazar in Fulelav Ki Ghati near Nai Ka Bad. This haveli still can be seen.

    Pushya Nakshatra haveli was planned to have construction work in Pushya Nakshtar only. The construction went on 273 Pushya nakshatra days in 21 years but it could not be completed as its owner Bhurji died. He was the kamdar of Maharaja Jaswant Singh II. After passing a period of more than one century, this haveli is still incomplete. This is the unique example of its one type. A statue of Edward 7th of England was fixed in this haveli which is still in good condition. A picture of Queen Victoria was also fixed on a wall which in depilated condition now.

    Jawahar Khana

    Jawahar Khana is originally a haveli but when it was used for keeping treasury of Jodhpur state, it was popular as Jawahar Khana. It was built by Nanhi Bai, a beloved beautiful dancer of Maharaja Jaswant Singh (II.) Fifty feet high Jawahar Khana has sandstone walls with a width of 2.5 or 3 feet. A grand pole (gate) has to be crossed to enter the yellow sandstone (Cheetar) building. While the building was being made, Nanhi Bai passed a royal order that all the buildings around it should be at least 10 feet shorter than Jawahar Khana, and the order was followed throughout her life time. Nanhi Bai wanted to make Jawahar Khana straight, but this could be done only if Muhammad Khan Ekka's house was razed to the ground. Nanhi Bai ordered that Ekka's house be destroyed. Ekka was a loyal soldier who had won a Jagir near Rohat as a reward from the Maharaja.Ekka ran to the king. Nanhi was ordered to let the building be constructed at a tangent only. Thus today the Jawahar Khana is not a square building.Twenty two rooms and two big halls in the main portion were constructed in Jawahar Khana. One hall was used as a sitting room by Nanhi and the other as a bedroom. The hall facing the Pole (Gate) was used for evening dances. In between was a big ground for meetings or mehfils. In the rooms on the left of the Pole, chariots, palkis etc. were kept.

    Shrines and cenotaphs

    It was very old tradition in whole India that a shrine, cenotaph or deval is built in the memory of a ruler or noble or warrior or a member of royal family or deity or any other important man or woman after his or her death. This was very popular in Marwar also. There is hardly any village or town in Marwar where any cenotaph or shrine is not found. It is known as Chhatri in local tounge. In marwar, deities fall roughly into seven types- (1.) Sati, (2.) Pitrani, (3.) Junjhar (4.) Pitar, (5.) Shaheed, (6.) Devi, (7.) Bhumia. Most shrines develop a reputation for being efficacious for particular kinds of problems—sometimes specific diseases, physical handicaps, loss of property, mental illness and so on. Shrines- roadside shrines, consecrated stones, idoles and icons of these deities dot the landscape of Marwar.

    Cenotaphs of the Rulers at Panchkunda

    Near Panchkunda, there is a funeral place of the Rathore rulers of Marwar which has temple-like memorials ranging from V.S. 1451 to 1546. Cenotafs of Rao Chunda, Rao Ranmal, Rao Jodha and Rao Ganga may be seen here. The gates of the memorials have Ashka Matrikas, Ganga and Yamuna with their vehicles carved on them. Many depictions of public life like a sleeping man with a woman sitting near his feet, soldiers on elephants, horses, Ganesha with four arms, dance and music parties etc. can also be seen. One of the memorials of V.S. 1213 (1156 A.D.) has inscription with the names of Rathore Bhuwani's son Salkha and his three queens- Salkhan Devi Chahuvani, Sawal Devi Solankini and Sejna Devi Gehlotni. The Garbha grihas of these memorials are now empty. They possibly had some inscriptions earlier which are now missing.

    Cenotaphs of the Queens at Panchkunda

    Near Panchkunda, a ground enclosed with four walls has the Samadhi sthal or memorials of the Queens. Earlier known as Janana Shamshan, the memorials made here are a proof of the Marwar kings' love for art and taste for architecture. Out of a total of 42 cenotaphs, one which is known for its grandeur is the dome of Queen Surya Kanwari made on 32 carved pillars. Queen Surya Kanwari was the daughter of King Pratap Singh of Jaipur, who expired in 1882. A large inscription on the memorial gives the details of the memorial. The domes have shell polish. Some diamond shaped pieces have been fixed in the walls in such a manner that they give the impression of being diamonds only. The artistic pots on the domes have blackened and been damaged.The memorial dome of Rani Bhatiyani of King Man Singh is made on a high platform. Its stones have broken and the inscriptions have also been damaged intentionally. The stones of the stairs leading to the top of the dome have weakened but the top portion of the dome is somewhat safe and sturdy. Dome of Queen Tulsi, daughter of Maharaj Viraj Nath Singh (V.S.1933, 1876 A.D.), memorial of Chawanji Raniwada (V.S.1979, 1922 A.D.) mother of Maharaj Jodhraja and Queen of Maharaja Takhat Singh are almost destroyed. Besides, there are memorials of Rani Chauhanji - daughter of Bakhtawar Singh and Queen of Thakur Karan Singh; Gulab Kanwar - daughter of Maharaja Shiv Singh of Sirohi; Queen Udai Kanwar- daughter of Rana Chandan Singh of Dhamodhar; Queen Dewdi of Maharaja Prithvi Singh, Naruki Lunkaran Queen of Maharaja Mohabbat Singh and Teja Dewdi - grand mother of Maharaja Takhat Singh.

    Devals of Mandore

    In Mandore garden down below the rocky platue, littered with ruins, are the devals or cenotaphs of the former rulers of Marwar. These are from Rao Maldeo (1531-62 A. D.) to Maharaja Takhat Singh (1843-73 A. D.). Some devals are great examples of architecture, for example the Devals of Maharaja Jaswant Singh, Ajit Singh and Takhat Singh, especially that of Maharaja Jaswant Singh. Most of the Devals give an impression of a Devalaya or temple.The cenotaph of Maharaja Ajit Singh is the largest of all the other buildings and the architectural composition of the Chhatari may safely be put in the salivate and the Jain styles. Maharaja Ajit Singh's deval has carved stones which have been carved seperately and then put together on the platform. The complete memorial seems to be knotted with stones. This three storeyed deval has Sabha Mandap, Ardh Mandap and Garbhgriha with lots of carved pillars. The outer walls of the first two storeys are covered with small statues of 36x11 inches, each wall having 48 statues. In these gods and goddesses in different poses, men and women, animals and natural scenes have been depicted.

    Cenotaphs of Kaga

    five kilometers North of Jodhpur city, between the Aravali hills lies the famous pilgrim centre of Kaga. It is said that saint Kag Bhusundi worshipped here, as a result of which Bhagwati Ganga appeared at this place. Later funerals of royal family members started to be performed here. Now it is known as Kaga cremation ground. More than 150 devals and domes can still be seen here. These also include domes of Bhatis, Rathores, Champawats, Rao Rajputs, Swamis, Rajpurohits, Sanghis and Charans.The artistic pillars, white marble statues and inscriptions of these devals take the tourists into the glorious past of Marwar. They tell about those royal people who, by their deeds have taken important places in the foundation and enhancement of Hindu religion. The shell polish inscriptions, statues, horses and boundaries of many of these memorials are now broken. Because most of the inscriptions have been destroyed, it becomes difficult to know about each memorial, but some of them still have their descriptive stories written on them. Two of them are the 'Sati Mata Thans' of two queens of Thakur Gambhir Singh who had committed Sati on the funeral pyre of their husband. The domes opposite each other have memorials of Purbia Rajputs, impressive of them being that of Nuhasingh. There is also a Bekalu Shamshan. This place also has memorial cenotaphs of Shankar Bharti and his wife Maina Bai. On the right of the domes of Rajpurohits are the domes of Rao Chandisa family. At the centre of this group of domes is Shrimant Vikramaditya Rajput's high dome resting on 20 carved pillars. It was made by Rajpurush Gordhan Das in V.S. 1882. Some of the recent memorials are that of Kunwari Narendra Kanwar Rathore, great grand daughter of Rao Raja Surat Singh - grand mother of Maharaja Umed Singh and many other landlords.

    Jaswant Thada

    Construction work of Jaswant Thada was statrted by Maharaja Jaswant Singh (II) himself but it could not be completed during his life time. The work was completed in 1906A.D., during the reign of his son Maharaja Sardar Singh. This beautiful building looks like a fairytale castle in the midst of the clouds. The best of the three buildings of Jodhpur- Mehrangarh, Umed Bhawan and Jaswant Thada, are living symbols of bravery and grandeur of Jodhpur in the medieval and modern era.This castle sings the music of the morning with dawn, and looks like a messenger of calm and peace in moon light. The building is made on a platform of red sandstone. It has pictures of the Marwar rulers.

    Ahada Hingola Ki Chhatri

    When Rao Ranmal was killed in 1488 A.D., Maharana Kumbha sent his nobels, Akka Sisodia and Ahada Hingola to take the charge of Marwar State. After 15 years, Rao Jodha killed Akka Sisodia and Ahada Hingola and regained control over Mandore. Ahada Hingola's memorial was later built on a small hill in the battle field itself. Later the prime minister of Jodhpur, Pratap Singh converted it into a huge memorial in 1912 .This cenotaf is situated near Balsamand lake, on a very high platform, but has no inscription, statue or any other symbol left on it.

    Cenotaph of Amar Singh Rathore

    Amar Singh Rathore (1613-44 A.D.) was elder son of Maharaja Gajsingh of Jodhpur. After he was disinherited and exiled by his family, he entered the Mughals' service. His legendary bravery and battle prowess resulted in elevation to a high rank in the imperial nobility and personal recognition by the emperor, who made him the subedar (governor) of a region that was directly ruled by the emperor himself, Nagaur. In 1644, he was enraged by an attempt by the emperor to levy a fine on him for an unauthorized absence. In the emperor's presence, he stabbed and killed Salabat Khan, who had been asked to collect the fine. He is celebrated in some popular ballads of Rajasthan, Western Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. His Cenotaph is situated at Nagaur headqarters near Ginani Talao.

    Cenotaph of Jayappa

    Jayappaji Rao Scindia (1720-55A.D.) also known as Jayappa Dada Sahib, was a Maratha general. He ruled Gwalior State from 1745-55, succeeding his father Ranoji Rao Scindia who had founded it. He was killed by two Rathore Rajputs adherents of Maharaja Vijay Singh of Jodhpur at before the walls of Nagaur fort on 25 July 1755, after entanglement in the affairs of Jodhpur. He was succeeded by his son Jankoji Rao Scindia, killed at the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761. His memorial cenotaph was built in Tausar village near Nagaur town. This is in good condition even today. A shivlinga is established in the shrine.

    Other Historical cenotaphs

    A red sandstone dome near the domes of the queens in Panchkunda is called Brahmin Devta Ki Chhatri. The magnificient carvings on the dome have gods, godesses and animals on them. It is said that on completion of Mehrangarh fort, some religious rites were performed. That time, the heart of a Brahmin was offered to the holy fire. A memorial of this Brahmin, the dome is now damaged and the inscription on it missing.

    One of the domes in Kaga is that of Maharaja Jaswant Singh's Prime Minister Raj Singh Kumpawat. On an occassion, Maharaja Jaswant Singh was caught by an evil spirit. The spirit said, "I'll leave the king only if an equally brave person sacrifices himself". The prime minister offered to sacrific and beheaded himself. Maharaja Jaswant Singh built this grand dome in Kaga. Standing on a high platform, this memorial is of red sandstone with a white marble statue and an inscription on it. The dome of Maharaja Man Singh's military commander Indra Raj Singhvi is located on the way from Nagori Gate to the Mehrangarh fort. A statue and an inscription were also put in the memorial that time, which has been damaged today.

    Man Singh's maternal uncle, Shyam Singh's memorial can be seen on the left of the main door 'Jaipole' of the fort. Shyam Singh was the Thakur of Rakhi and Jojhawar and died fighting when Jaipur and Bikaner armies jointly attacked Jodhpur. It has an inscription stating 9 day of August month in 1854.Inside the fort, adjacent to the wall is the memorial of Kirat Singh Sodha, Chief of Jasol Thakur. Maharaja Man Singh built this memorial. Before the steep path to the fort, there is a dome on the left known as Dhanna Bhiyan Veeron Ki Chhatri. Maharaja Ajit Singh built this memorial.

    Opposite the old stadium, two domes of Gora Dhai exist. She was governess of Maharaja Ajit Singh. She committed Sati when her husband died on 18 May, 1704. In her memory Maharaja Ajit Singh constructed this Chhatri on 21 Aug. 1711. Made on six pillars, this Chhatri earlier had the statues of Gora Dhai and her husband. The new dome was built the district authorities in 20th century.

    There are many cenotafs of Singhvis near Akhaisagar. Akhaisagar was constructed by Bhim Singh's commander Akhai Raj Singhvi. After his death his memorial cenotaf was made here only. Indra Raj's son Fateh Raj was Maharaja Man Singh's diwan. After Fateh Raj's death, his dome was also built near those of his father and uncle.Opposite Baldev temple is another dome, near the domes of Indra Raj, Gul Raj and Fateh Raj, that of Singhvi Bhim Raj.

    Sufi Shrines

    Nagaur has the pride of early founding of Sufi shrines. One of the earliest Sufis to come to Nagaur was Sultan Tarkin, whose shrine was established during Hindu rule. After Khwaja Moinuddin established the Chishti Sufi order at Ajmer one of his disciples, named Hamiduddin, came to Nagaur. Hazrat Hamiduddin accommodated some Hindu principles in his teachings— he became a strict vegetarian and lovingly reared a cow in his shrine. Hindus worship him as "Tar Kishanji". His shrine is situated at Nagaur district head quarters.

    The Sufi shrine of Abban Shah (also known as jalan ro Pir) in Jalor is considered particularly significant for musicians: it is believed that this deity cures 'musical ills' and specific deficiencies in musical perform¬ance or skill. There is a jal tree in the shrine, the leaves of which are said to have a healing effect on the voice. The shrine is most often used for regaining the singing voice, which breaks after puberty.

    हमारी नई वैबसाइट - भारत का इतिहास -

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