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  • Cultural Aesthetics of Marwar, Part -3

    Cultural Aesthetics  of Marwar, Part -3

    Moral excellence of Marwari society

    Moral excellence of Kshatriyas

    हमारी नई वैबसाइट - भारत का इतिहास -

    Pratihara ruler Kakkuka who ruled over Mandore in 861 A. D. narrates in a verse- "Six things are dear to Kakkuka, lute (Veena), sweet song (kakali), moon of early winter, the flower of Malti, disciplined wife, and association with good people." In second verse Kakkuka says- "Six things are dear to Kakkuka, the path of justice, devotion towards teacher, love towards son, gratefulness, endearing speech and civilized dress."

    Thus, things which were dear to him do not smack of any material interest. Out of the above twelve- lute, sweet song, moon and Malti show his interest in Sundaram (beautiful) whereas the six following show his liking in traditional discipline (Satyam) and the last two indicate his liking in his civic sense (Shivam).

    Chahamana Indraraj son of Durlabharaj is mentioned as an ideal among Kshatriyas. He had won treasure of glory in a number of battles, was philosopher's stone for those who loved him, was respectful towards Brahmanas, for ladies he was young cupid-incarnate and was ornament of the earth.

    The first adjective is but natural for the Kshatriyas, second shows his bounteousness, the third indicates, his humility before the learned, the fourth indicates his bodily beauty whereas the last is too general and eulogistic.

    The description given below of Chahamana king is not only beautiful but is a fine example of seemingly contradictory but in fact, not contradictory phrases. It is said that he is developed but not developed (by anybody), he is clear like the month of Jyestha (biggest) but not creating any burning, he is of good origin (root) but following dharma, he is holding the bow but his actions are picturesque, he is capable of holding the earth (like mountain) but not for the pleasure of the cow-herds, he is worth serving but not unexerting.

    Thus the qualities mentioned in him are that he is self-developed, big but not troubling others, belonging to good origin and following religion, ready with his arms, successful in administration and attended by others. In this very inscription, a philosophical view has been taken of this world. It is mentioned that all things like progeny etc. are cause of unhappiness, the body is subject to funeral, youth is by nature transient, wealth is unthinkable obstacle and dharma alone is the giver of happiness.

    Here, no balance is maintained between dharma, artha and kama. The thoughts of this type seem to have created an imbalance in social thinking. In the same inscription, the sources of character building are described as association with good people, discipline and morality.

    Dhanapal, the author of Tilakamanjari, who was contemporary of Vakpati II (Munja) and Bhoj Paramara has given a balanced description of the king saying that he was yatharthah-prajapatih and sarvadarsanajna. Maintenance of castes and asramas and the appreciative understanding of the view point of all the sects, had also found universal acceptance during this period.

    In the inscription of Parmara Bhoj, good conduct is considered to be a virtue and simultaneously the philosophical view has been taken of this world. It is said that the over lordship of the worlds is an illusion like whirl-wind, the enjoyments pertaining to the senses are sweet in the beginning only, the lives of men are like a drop hanging on the end of the straw and religion alone is a great friend for a journey to the next world.

    Wealth is based upon the rim of the moving wheel i.e. world hence those who do not give, they repent later on. Bhoja has described charity as the virtue of one's character but says that not undoing the charities of others, is also a sign of good character. It is also said that thinking wealth and life of man transient like drop of water on the lotus petal and knowing what has been said above, man should not undo glorious deeds of others.

    Purnapal's vasantagadha inscription describes the liberal qualities of Vigraharaj and says that he was God in the form of man. It is described that his glory due to the liberal qualities of charity and chivalry etc. has crossed this world. He has made a mount of those enemies who are insincere, he is surrounded by beautiful ladies, he has promoted the cause of his family, he possesses beautiful body, he has held earth by his prowess, he has established a circle of his own by his power, thus he is Madhava incarnate.

    In this very inscription, Parmara Dhandhuk's character is mentioned thus. He had taken away wealth by his prowess among the forces of the enemy and his glory is sung in the world of Indra by heavenly nymphs with lute in their hands. Parmara Purnapal is described as religious and having the vow of chivalry.

    Moral excellence of Brahmanas

    In Purnapal's vasantagadha inscription, the Brahmanas are said to have crossed the ocean of vedas which is having the movement due to mantras (incantations) and dama (restraint) and is full of six vedangas and still they are prideless. In the Sevadi inscription, the Brahmanas in the progeny of Govinda of Gouridakurch were doing six acts befitting the Brahmanas viz. sacrifices on their accord, sacrifices for others, study, teaching, giving gifts and accepting gifts, doing recitation of mantras, studying the vedas, doing meditation and religious performance, were busy with old chronicles, puranas, Ramayana Bharata, grammar, logic, the writing of Yajnavalkya, katyayana, Bhrigu, Angira and Markandeya and six philosophies of Sankhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaiseshika, Purva Mimamsa and Vedanta and were doing sacrifices known as avasathya (sacrifice in the fire kept in the house), agnihotra (sacrifice to Agni), agnishtoma (name of a protracted ceremony or sacrificial rite extending over several days in spring and forming an essential part of the Jyotishtoma, sautramani (a kind of sacrifice involving the use of wine, pasubandha (an animal sacrifice) and chaturmasya (name of a sacrifice performed every four months i.e. at the beginning of Kartika, Falguna and Ashadha).

    They knew the art of opening the tie of greater sin, vedas and vedangas, i.e., the science of proper articulation and pronunciation, the science of prosody, grammar, etymological explanation of difficult vedic words, astronomy and ritual or ceremonial. In this para, there is more description of religious rites and knowledge than values of life but the phrase that they were capable of removing the tie of greatest sin proves that they were themselves above the ties of sin. They were following the path of knowledge, action, devotion and rites.

    Moral excellence of Vaisyas

    Some inscriptions describe about character of the Vaisyas also. In Dhandhal's inscription adjectives used for certain persons of the vaisya varna are intellectually pure, full of virtues, kind and charitable having good understanding, proficient in conduct of civilized people and devoted towards the all knower (Jina).

    From these adjectives it is clear that the ideals of the life of a Vaisya were devotion, purity of thought, good conduct and charity. In Alhan's inscription, Vaisya Dharanigga is mentioned as doer of good actions and full of intelligence. Thus in this inscription, good actions and intelligence are considered two good qualities for the Vaisyas.

    Moral excellence of Sudras

    In Vatsaraj's inscription the common quality mentioned for Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas and Sudras is goodness. It means that goodness was considered a virtue for all including the Sudras.

    Common Moral excellence of all people

    Rashtrakuta Dhaval's inscription mentions that the people did not swerve from truth. Thus truth was an ideal common for all. In Purnapal's inscription the qualities of the citizens are mentioned thus. They were busy with good of the city, acted according to the ethical principles, were peaceful, worshipped gods by offering gold, wealth, land, clothes and precious stones. They were famous in the three worlds for their good virtues. They were interested in the good of all the people and devoted to sun.

    The images of Sun at Mandor, Bedla Pokharan, Kiradu, Saroda, Thakda, Sirohi, Chittor and Bhinmal indicate Sun worship in Marwar area in 8th to10th century period.

    Thus we see that the virtues of a good citizen lay in being ethical, peaceful, devoted to god, adopting good virtues and being led by the interest of the city and the whole people. Having given the description of the virtues of the citizens it seems necessary to look into the virtues which were expected in a lady. In the same inscription, description is given about Dhandhuk's wife also. She is described as having beauty, good conduct and birth in good family. In Vigraharaj's wife's description, she is described as having a face like fully sprouted lotus and hands tender like lotus. She was born in high family, was full of virtues and devoid of viciousness.

    The women in this period do not seem to be bound in their houses. In Kumarapal's inscription it is mentioned that the women were busy with games and plays, dear to them on branches of the trees in the forest. It would mean that women in general were not kept in parda. Parda was not an ideal for ladies in the Rajputa period.

    हमारी नई वैबसाइट - भारत का इतिहास -

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