India is several millennia old country, which is built upon rich cultural boundaries rather than nature’s boundaries. Its border is set upon an area where Vedas are resonated, and Gods are worshiped. People, living across the western border of India, used to worship demons and study ahurmjda. In the legendary era, wherever the tales of Ramayana and Mahabharata reached, there the regimes of Indian princes were eternalized. After that, those countries adopted the Indian culture.
During the time of Alexander the Great’s invasion on India, in 326 B.C (2337 years ago) India’s border used to extend from Hind-Kush Mountains in the west to Burma’s border in the east. Persia (currently known as Iran) or Faras was the neighboring country in west.
In 624 B.C., Lord Buddha was born. He preached the message of peace to the whole world. These messages were spread to the countries such as China, Tibet in the north; Burma, Thailand, Java, Sumatra, Bali, Borneo, Indonesia, Somali, etc. in the east and Sri-Lanka in the south; while it was limited to the west side of the Hindu-Kush Mountains. Wherever the teachings of the Lord Buddha spread, there the Indian culture flourished. In this view, India is a home to diverse and rich culture.
Currently, seven countries are located in the area from Iran to Burma, which is Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Bhutan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar, while Tibet has been overlapped into China. Sri-Lanka was once part of India.
Till Aurangzeb’s reign, Afghanistan was a part of India but separated from India long before the British Empire emerged as an imperial power in Indian political firmament. Buddhist monks embellished caves and carved statues of Lord Buddha in Afghanistan, which are still stood and preserved, were destroyed with heavy artilleries by Taliban militants a few decades ago. Today also, the native Afghans speak Hindi language.
Burma and Sri Lanka were separated from India during the British regime, but Pakistan and Bangladesh were separated the day when the Britishers had to leave India. This separation of Pakistan and Bangladesh from India in two different fragments of the same country, of which one was called as East Pakistan, and the other, as West Pakistan. Later, these fragments fought among themselves and emerged as two separate nations.
In human history, separation of Pakistan from India is one of the brutal and bloody events. Many other countries of the world have also faced these horrific tragedies. However, whatever happened at the time of separation of Pakistan and India was the result of human psychology that shows on civilization canvas, that humans have always behaved like stubborn kids. As a kid breaks the toy kept in his hand in the anticipation of achieving a new toy, in the same manner, humans put their old achievements on stake, in a hope of new victory. Even after sixty-seven years of separation, our fight is not yet over. We still could not be good neighbors.
The whole world was watching our farce, and we, to save our citizens from terror attacks kept expecting rationality from Pakistan. Should an act of rationality have been expected from Pakistan that could have helped in establishing a friendly relationship between both the countries! Further, what has India not done to show sensibility towards Pakistan? Despite frequent terror attacks and fake currency coming across the border, India has always extended generous gestures to Pakistan and has maintained a diplomatic relation with it. The foregrounds of Pakistan were laid on fights. The Indian Muslim League was founded in the year 1908 and from then until 1947, it had been fighting for Pakistan and staying with it.
This book provides a lucid glimpse of these fights. The main motive behind writing this book is to unfold those pages of history, from which lessons can be taken for the future so that puerile things cannot be repeated and we can live peacefully like good neighbors. The first and last wish of every Indian is to establish peace.
The British India and the Princely India
In 1858 AD, the British government had formally taken over Indian governance through the East India Company. By then, The East India Company had divided India into two large pieces. The first piece was called as “British India” or “English India,” which was directly governed by the East India Company. The other piece was called as “Indian India” or “Princely India,” which was ruled by the kings. The East India Company ruled the first piece through the Governor General and the second piece through the Viceroy. However, in practice, only one person was in charge for these two posts. The British Parliament did not make any major changes in this practice and it continued beyond 1858 AD.
Role of Morley-Minto Act in the division of India
In 1885, the Indian National Congress was founded. Until 1908, it was the mere organization, which was struggling with the country’s political problems. In 1908, the India Muslim League was established in Dhaka. In sober fact, the rise of Muslim League had sowed the seed of division of the country. Soon afterwards, according to Morley-Minto Reforms Act, 1909, separate representations of the Indian Muslims were arranged in the assemblies. However, this arrangement was opposed by the Congress while was encouraged by the Muslim League. Historians have called this system of the Britishers as “divide-and-rule” policy. Noted journalist Durga Das writes that by accepting separate electorate and communal representatives, White Haul had unwittingly sown the seed of division in the country. Ganesh Prasad Barnwal writes that Morley-Minto Reform Act had insured the crop of communalism. We believe that these seeds were not inadvertently sown. These seeds of communalism were already present on the political grounds of India, and these crops fluttered for centuries. Rather, Morley-Minto Act profound the idea to make profits by cropping these seeds of communalism.
The First Map of Divided India in 1930
In 1930, the annual session of the Muslim League was held in Allahabad. During this session, Dr. Iqbal, in his presidential address, based on a separate political identity of Muslims, outlined a vision of an independent nation for Muslims or proposed federation of India. Dr. Iqbal’s grandfather was a Kashmiri Brahmin. For centuries, his forebears were living in India peacefully. However, it was not acceptable to Iqbal to settle down in India. He always wanted Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Sindh, and Baluchistan to be integrated into a single homeland for Muslims. After that, the first map of divided India was borne and bred. By that time, the word “Pakistan” was not coined. Therefore, it was called as Muslim India. This political poet Dr. Iqbal had written Saare Jahan Se Acha song. At the time of partition, Iqbal claimed to be the national poet of India, which was rejected by the Congress in the wake of his antics. Later, he trotted to Pakistan, where he wrote down Saare Jahan Se Acha Pakistan Humara. These instances are enough to clarify Iqbal’s pseudo-nationalism. Unfortunately, the song written by Iqbal is still being sung in India today like a national song, while no one ask for him in Pakistan.
Demand for creation of Sindh as a Muslim- majority state
Soon afterward the annual session of Muslim League in 1930 AD, first round table conference was organized in London in 1931, in which, representatives of the Muslim League asked for the reservation of seats in a proportion of the population of the Muslim community, in the Indian legislative assemblies. They also demanded that Sindh should be given the status of new Muslim majority province.
Discovery of the word Pakistan in 1933
In 1933 AD, one of the students named Rahmat Ali made a proposal which said that Indian Muslims should separate their state from Hindus. Rahmat Ali was studying at a graduate level in England, and he was 40 years old at that time. He said in his proposal that to keep India intact is inurbane and queer. Northwest regions of India – Punjab, Sindh, Kashmir, North-West Frontier Province (Afghan) and Baluchistan, which were largely inhabited by Muslims, should be amalgamated into a new country called Pakistan. His proposal was concluded by the following words: “We will not crucify ourselves upon the cross of Hindu nationalism to make a Hindu-holiday.”
Indian Muslim students of Cambridge University also supported Rahmat Ali. He issued a pamphlet titled “Now or Never.” This pamphlet constituted: “India is not the name of one single country; nor the home of one single nation. In fact, it is the designation of a State created by the British for the first time in history.” It also gave reasons for the demand of a separate Muslims Federation. It embodied that not only their lifestyle but also their national customs, calendar, food, clothing were fundamentally distinct from the other inhabitants of India.
Rahmat Ali gave two meanings for the word “Pakistan’’. According to the first meaning, the word “Pakistan” referred to as the holy land. According to the second meaning, the word Pakistan” was composed of the first letters taken from the following states - Punjab, Afghania, Kashmir, and Sindh. Rest of the word was taken from the last part of Baluchistan. Later on, Assam and Bengal from the east; Hyderabad and Malabar from the south were also plotted to be included into Pakistan. This proposal inferred that the entire non-Muslim state would be surrounded by the Muslim country and Muslim pockets in-between Muslim nation would be included as a part of Pakistan.
“Impossible Dream” by Jinnah
Larry Collins and Dominique Lapierre writes about Jinnah’s reaction on Rahmat Ali’s proposal that Jinnah, who was going to be credited one day as the Father of Pakistan, had vehemently criticized Rahmat Ali’s proposal by saying Pakistan as an “impossible dream” in 1933. Defacto, staying in London for the whole of his life, Rahmat Ali had always struggled for Pakistan, but Jinnah had never given him importance. Jinnah had a fear that Rahmat Ali might not take away his place.
Maulana Abul Kalam Azad opposed the word Pakistan
On opposing the term “Pakistan”, Maulana Abul Kalam issued a statement on 15 April 1946, that “this term goes against my grain” which infers some parts of the world are pure while the others are impure.
Jinnah- symbol of Hindu-Muslim Unity
Muhammad Ali Jinnah’s ancestors were Hindu. His family had never followed communalistic tendencies. That is why Muhammad Ali Jinnah was brought up in an English environment. He studied law and in the first decade of the twentieth century, he greatly admired Indian political leader Dadabhai Naroji and entered politics under his assistance.
He attended the Congress’ twentieth Bombay session in 1904 along with Pherozeshah Mehta. He took the membership of the Congress in 1913. He was an ardent proponent of Hindu-Muslim unity. He had never lost the chance to give a strong speech on this topic. He became the president of Muslim League in 1916. Since he took the membership of Congress and Muslim League together, he landed into controversy. Never-the-less, he was considered as an ambassador of Hindu-Muslim unity. Immediately after the Congress session at Nagpur in 1920, Jinnah bid adieu the Congress and became the member of Muslim League only. Mosley writes that till 1920, he used to propagate through legal means for his ideas to be consented and continued emphasizing on Hindu-Muslim Unity till 1928.
Mosley also adds that Muhammad Ali Jinnah’s name was adhered with Indian Poetess Sarojini Naidu for few days. She got infatuated with him and used to write him love poems. It is believed that to get rid of her, he moved to London and settled as a successful barrister there. He continued his legal practice in London till 1934.
The Muslim League brought Jinnah to India
As soon as Rahmat Ali introduced the concept of the nation called Pakistan; it became enlightened overnight among Muslim youth living in London. As the newspapers around the globe started prompting a fuss over this, Muslim League’s vision got its new wings. He was now looking for a leader, who had not only seen India but also world, who knew the international law, who could communicate with the Britishers in their own language fluently, who was also a renowned barrister like Patel, Nehru, Gandhi and who could snatch a large part of India from Patel, Nehru and Gandhi. For this purpose, Muhammad Ali Jinnah came to his senses. He brought him up from London to India, urging him to leave his profession in 1934. It was happening for the first time in history, that a leader was being imported from London for the country in the offing. In the same year, Jinnah was elected to the central legislative assembly and as the president of All India Muslim League.
Jinnah- completely tinted in Englishness
During the short period from 1934 to 1947, Jinnah and Gandhi were considered as political enemies of each other on India’s political sky. Tinted completely in Indian color, Gandhi was like a comet in Indian Politics, who could not be countered by any other whereas Jinnah was colored in a hue of Englishness. Although Gandhi, in comparison to Jinnah, might have remembered more verses in Quran, Jinnah had unrivaled success because he had won the hearts of those Muslims whose traditional language Urdu, he couldn’t even speak properly. His accent was such that once he said Pakisten Jindebed the end of his speech. Some journalists made a meaning of those words as “Pakistan is in bag”, while it meant to be “Pakistan Zindabad.”
Pakistan Resolution passed in 1940.
In 1940, another pamphlet titled “Millat –e-Islam and Menace of Indianism” was issued by Rahmat Ali, wherein he implied that Muslims must demand themselves a separate nation. He came with a word “Dinia” out of the manipulation of the letters of the word “India” which meant– subcontinent which was destined to be convertedto Islam. He gave a name “Bang-e-Islam” for the combined terrorities of Bengal and Assam, which meant “Bangush of Islam”. Bangush was the Mughal chieftain of Bengal. He named Bihar as “Faruquistan”, Uttar Pradesh as “Haideristan”, and Rajputana as “Muinistan". He imagined “Moinistan” on the name of Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti. His concept was so successful that in December 1940, Lahore Session of the Muslim League passed the “Pakistan Resolution”, which declared that no constitutional schemes would be acceptable or workable to Muslims unless it has been drawn on following fundamentals: Muslims in Muslim-majority areas, such as North-western parts and North-eastern parts of India should be taken collectively and organized in entirely to eight independent countries, where each unit would be independent and sovereign. K.M. Munshi writes in his book “Pilgrimage to Freedom” that, immediately after this, the leaders of Muslim League had created riots in some places. Riots in Dhaka, Ahmedabad, and Mumbai were very much unpleasant.
Lord Linlithgow- An opportunist
Congress was fighting for India’s independence, and their demand was being supported not only in India but also at an international level. There was only one meaning to their demand that the British government should transfer the authority to the Congress and move out. However, at the time of Muslim League’s demand for Pakistan, Viceroy Lord Linlithgow, in August 1940, said in his famous proposal to India that it was clear without retorting that, for India’s peace and prosperity, the British government could not hand over their responsibilities to the government whose dominion had been rejected by a large and important elements in the nation. With the declaration by Viceroy Lord Linlithgow, the Muslim League got the moral boost for their demand of a new nation “Pakistan”.
Demand for Pakistan in 1941
In the next annual session of 1941 at Madras, the Muslim League’s demand for Pakistan was presented in a greater zeal. The session also manifested the detailed interpretation of this demand by its President Jinnah. He said, “The aim of All India Muslim League is to establish a completely independent state in the northwest and eastern parts of India with full control over defense, foreign affairs, communications, customs, currency, exchange, etc.” He also added “Under any circumstances, we do not want a complete Indian Constitution with one government at the center. We will never agree to it.”
Jinnah opposed Quit India Movement
In 1942, when the Congress initiated Quit India Movement, Jinnah gave speeches in an uncivilized manner against the Congress. When Gandhi made a call in Mumbai that he wanted freedom tonight, then Jinnah urged Muslims to protest against Quit India Movement. To show widespread agitation against Quit India Movement, the Muslim League Press addressed the Congress leaders as gunda, who were fighting with the British government. The British Press had never made such worst statements against the Congress leaders as the Muslim League Press had made.
Jinnah disliked Nehru
Larry Collins and Dominique Lapierre write in their book “Freedom at Midnight” that Jinnah had outraged his mind against Jawaharlal Nehru. He never liked Nehru’s interference in the politics. According to Jinnah, Nehru was a person who had worn a guise of western education from outside and cunningness from inside.
Jinnah’s zero tolerance towards Gandhi
Larry Collins and Dominique Lapierre have written in their book “Freedom at Midnight” that once Gandhi visited Jinnah’s place for some talk. During the break, he lay down on the precious Persian carpet of Jinnah and laid the soil on his stomach. Jinnah could never forget this scene nor could he forgive. Also, Jinnah was driven out of the public forum of Congress at least two times as Congress members always wanted him to address Gandhi with “Mahatma” while Jinnah used to say “Mr. Gendi”.
Jinnah and Gandhi’s dispute on Muslim representation
Both Jinnah and Gandhi had dispute only at one point. Jinnah argued that the Muslim League was the sole institution that could represent Muslims while Gandhi said that the Congress could represent both Hindu and Muslim. In June 1945, Lord Wavell scheduled a conference between them at Simla, where, the formation of a new executive of viceroy was discussed. Gandhi tried to involve Maulana Abul Azad on the behalf of the Congress. However, Jinnah was against it. He said, “The government will have only four Muslim representatives, and those will be only from the Muslim League. Congress has authority to appoint only Hindus as their representatives”. There were so many disputes over this point that at last Simla Conference failed. After this Viceroy Lord Wavell was considered infelicitous in Indian Politics.
Preparation of armed action
The Muslim League claimed that so far as they were not the slave of anyone except the Britishers, therefore there should be a separate nation for them. In order for their demand to be accepted, the Muslim League formulated their private army where training in fighting, stabbing to death, assaults were imparted separately. Arms were collected, and disbanded Muslim personnel of the Indian Army were recruited in the League army. This army continued to expand and equip with military equipments. This army was classified into two organizations- one was the Muslim League Volunteer Corp and second was the Muslim National Guards. The National Guard was a secret organization of the league. Its membership was secret, and it had its centers and headquarters, where its members were given military training and such instructions that would provide benefits to them during riots, such as the fore use of sticks, spears and knife. The commander of the National Guard was known as Salar.
Achieving Pakistan- by hook or by crook
Sent by the British government, Cripps’ and its mission of 1942 and the Cabinet mission of 1945 were an attempt to give back India its dominion status. But these missions proved a failure because the Congress and the League could not agree on the British government’s proposal. Congress wanted freedom of India as “Inviolated India” whereas the Muslim League wanted India to be first divided and then freed. When the Congress turned down the Muslim League’s demand, then Jinnah decided to call for “direct action.” Upon this, Jawaharlal Nehru trotted to Jinnah’s residence to convince him to withdraw his announcement of “direct action”, but failed.
The Muslim League throughout India observed 16 August 1946 as “Direct Action Day” resulting in thousands of death in the city of Calcutta. Bengal Chief Minister Suhravardi while leading riots gave a slogan – Larke Lenge Pakistan. He declared a public holiday on that day so that the Muslim League leaders could successfully enforce violence. Bengal Governor Sir Frederick Burrows could not do anything to stop these riots.
Jinnah got emotional for Pakistan in London
Speaking in Kingsway Hall in London on 13 December 1946, regarding the future proceedings of the Constituent Assembly of India during the consultations with the British Government, Jinnah made a fevered plea for the Muslim state that one million Muslims would inhabit Pakistan. He also included that he wanted a separate state in the -western and north-eastern parts of India where they were in 70% majority and wherein they could live according to their lifestyle. “We are told that the so-called united India is British-made. It was by the strength of sword. It can only be held as it has been held. Do not be misled by anyone saying that India is one and should it not continue to be one. What do we want? I tell you, Pakistan. Pakistan presupposes that Hindustan should also be a free State.”
Muslim League in Nehru’s Interim government
On September 2, 1946, Interim government of India was formed. Jawaharlal Nehru was the head of it. However, Jinnah was not involved. Jinnah did not send anyone on the five seats kept reserved for the Muslim League. When the Interim Government delivered well without the Muslim League, Jinnah was comprehended and ultimately, he sent his League members to the government on October 15, 1946.
Finance Ministry to Muslim
League Upon the Muslim League joining the Interim government, the viceroy Lord Wavell advised the Congress that the Finance Ministry should remain with the Congress and Sardar Patel should be the head of it because they would need the ministry at every step to run the government. By then, Patel would have understood Jinnah and the Muslim League so well. Thus, he chose to offer finance portfolios to the Muslim League and to keep the Department of home affairs with himself.