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    Historical Hindu Temples in Marwar

    Historical Hindu Temples in Marwar

    हमारी नई वैबसाइट - भारत का इतिहास -

    The earliest phase of architectural activity was the offshoot of the virile architectural movement initiated and nurtured during the Gupta period. This tradition continued in the region for centuries. Chouhans, Pratihars, Parmars and Rathores erected thousands of temples in this desert area. Osian, Bhinmal, Dadhimata, Kekind, Kiradu, Varah Shyam and Shiwada temples are the good examples of that perod. By about 700 A.D., all over India, a number of divergent experimental temple shapes had given rise and way to certain viable and almost universal prototypes. Almost uniformly now the temple consisted of a square or rectangular sanctum with a porch in front or, occasionally, a mandapa either attached to the sanctum via a vestibule (antarala) or forming a separate but appurtenant structure in front of the sanctum.

    From many points of view the further development beyond this stage and till about 1000 A.D. represents the most important and the most consequential phase in the history of temple-building in India. For after 1000 A.D. or so it was only a matter of carrying on along lines already firmly etched; the most fascinating part consists of the first tentative and modest prototypes developing into the initial monumental edifices which started being erected from about 950 A.D.

    This development from Parashurameshvar to Lingaraja, all at Bhubaneshvar in Orissa, from the early and small temples at Kanchipuram to Brihadlshvar (at Thanjavur) and Naresar (near Gwalior) to Kandariya (at Khajuraho) is echoed in the case of Rajasthan in the progression from the earlier temples at Osian to those at Kiradu west of Barmer. One feels inclined to question Kiradu's being mentioned in the context of the other undeniably far more formidable agiants, let us not loose sight of the fact of the desert's limited resources as also of the fact of Kiradu having remained rather under-rated, of which more, later. While most developments were thus in this continuum of from small to big, regional stylistic preferences and patronage made for quite some differences, too. Barring some exceptions, it was generaliy a spaced out and gradual movement from a Parashurameshvar (650 A.D.) to a Mukteshvara (C 950 A.D.) to a Raja Rani (C 1025 A.D.) and, more characteristically, to a Lingaraja (C 1100 A.D.) as in the case of Orissa, or, from the Osian to Kekind to Kiradu via Nagda as in Rajasthan. Though most of the temples have common features, a careful study of the architectural details presented in these temples makes one to conclude that two groups of temples existed in Rajasthan during the pre-medieval and post-medieval periods. One group included in it Sun temples, Harihar temple and Mahavir temple at Osia, Vishnu temple at Mandor, Vishnu temple at Buchkala, Kameshwar temple at Auwa, Harshnath temple at Sikar, the temple at Nadole, the Sun temple, called Budhdit in Kota area and several others of this type in Mehrangarh, Chittaurgarh etc.

    All these temples, range in point of antiquity from the pre medieval to the post-medieval period. Most of these temples stand on a high, moulded platform with very few exceptions.These temples are mostly Latina in form. Standing on a platform as they do, these are predominently 'tri-anga' on plan. The platform (Jagati) of these temples is generally constituted by an amplified Vedi bandha, sometimes showing a decoration of large niches at intervals on the Kumbha. The Mula-prasada has, as a rule, no pitha. The door frame of all such temples is very richly decorated. The figural and foliate ornamentation are both rich and varied. All the above, in brief, applies to the early temples of the 1st group. In the middle type of temples, the decoration of pillars is finer and in the door-frame a few new shakhas like the vyala sakhas are introduced and these cover the whole door-frame. The temples at Auwa and Bhundana amply illustrate this characteristic feature.

    Beginning modestly in the 8th century as the local rulers of Mandore and Jalore, the Pratiharas rose to imperial status in the 9th and Bhoja-I shifted his capital to Kannauj after his accession to the throne in 836 A.D. though the Pratiharas maintained their links with Rajasthan. The wealth which (the early temples at Osian, Abaneri and Chittaurgarh represent remains unparalleled and along wiln some temples of the 10th century they form an invaluable corpus for anyone seeking to study the phenomenon of the transformation which the temple in North India underwent during 8th to 10th centuries.

    Osian, in particular, offers a complete series of temples built over four centuries starting with the 8th of Abaneri only the shell of othe sanctum remains-the makeshift mandapa being of later erection-along with the tiered terrace on which a wonderful and large temple unit must have once stood. The devolution of the Pratihara style in Central India and Rajasthan went along parallel lines. In Rajasthan also the progression from Osian to Kekind-Harshanath-Rajorgarh, though substantial, was still within the bounds of legitimate evolution.

    This transition also occurred over about a century and a half, from C 800 A.D; to C 950 A.D.The temples of southern Rajasthan also conformed to the Osian-Kekind continuum upto a point of time. Thus, the Kameshvara at Auwa near Pali (C 850 A.D.) had, despite an ornate two-storeyed pyramidical superstructure, a distinct affinity with the 'proper' Gurjara Pratihara lineage.

    The same may be said of Varman (C 875 A.D.) located even further to the south, and the Lakuleesh at Ekiingjl (872 A.D.) north of Udaipur.If the temples of the Osian group are one stage removed from the Gupta models and those of the Kekind type, two, then, these temples are three stages so removed and well on the way to giving rise to the Chandella and Kachchhapaghata norms on the one hand, figuratively as well as geographically, and the Solanki one, on the other.

    The Someshvara at Kiradu built around 1000 A.D. is important as it is, perhaps, the last major surviving example of a viable admixture of the Gurjara Pratihara and the emerging Solanki features: it manages to combine the strength of the former with the delicacy of the latter. It represents, perhaps, the last successful stand of the Gurjara Pratihara vogue before the flamboyant Solanki one will appear to take everything in its sweep. Of the group of significant temples at Kiradu, it may also be said that they have, unfortunately, remained rather underrated. In fact they are as rewarding, if not more, than the famous Modhera temple in Gujarat which was erected soon after, around 1025 A.D. In sculplure, particularly, Kiradu scores over Modhera. Kiradu in fact possesses some of the finest post-1000 A.D. sculpture in India.

    Having thus distinguished the Pratihara style of Rajasthan (Maha-Maru) from that of the lemple of upper Gujarat and south-western Rajasthan of the 8th-9th centuries (Maha-Gurjara), Dhaky then goes on to draw a demarcation line between the two and describe, first, a Maha-Gurjara foray into the Maha-Maru domain (as seen at Osian, Merta Road and Harsha near Bilara, in the 10th century) and then, a Maha-Maru rejoinder (as witnessed at Kiradu, Bhinmal, Chandravati and Ahar, at the close of the 10th century.) It is out of this clash or "embrace" of the 'virile and handsome'. With due deference to Dhaky it may perhaps be permissible to suggest that inspite of differences in terms of some details, the developments in temple building In Rajasthan and Gujarat over C 700- C 1000 A.D. do not merit to be regarded as two contrary and clashing movements but rather as two neighbouring and parallel developmems progressing by degrees from similar starting points to the same denounement.

    To this line of thinking the two movements will appear to be basically congruent at various stages in their careers. Roda, even though spartan in comparison, answers Osian; Muni Bawa, Kekind, Trinetreshvara and Kota; Jagat, while Miodera following close on the heels of Kiradu represents the ultimate and utter triumph of the Solanki features all over Gujarat and over most areas of Rajasthan, too, in an age when politically also the Soliinkis came to hold sway over southern Rajasthan. The period from 1000 A.D. onward saw in Rajasthan supremacy of certain Rajput powers like the Chauhans of Sakambhari, Sikar, Ajmer and Nadol; the Parmars of Abu and the Guhilas of Dungarpur, Banswara, Khed and Mewar, under whom the architectural activity found its expression in temples of various faiths and styles. Bhatis of Jaisalmer, the Rathors of Marwar, the Yaduvanshis of East Rajasthan and Badgujars etc. also encouraged temple activities. The post 1000 A.D. period is, by contrast, much less exciting because it is all so predictable- the essential features are all fixed and the structures, too, are all, more or less, copies of a model. Elsewhere in Rajasthan nothing much of interest seems to have taken place unless we take that the monuments were pillaged or razed to the ground.

    Chauhan Vigraharaja IV's college at Ajmer was indeed thus converted into the Dhai-din-ka-Jhonpra. Topkhana at Jalore offers another example. Of the post-1300 A.D. or Rajput period also we do not have to speak at any length. The massive and extensive 'Chaumukha' temple at Ranakpur (l438 A.D.) is, however, a most remarkable monument. It is saved from the overripe feel of Delwara by virtue of its vast spaces and striking heights and the complex is also well served by its scenic location. In the 17th century several good architects worked at Merta, Pali, Jalore, Nagaur, etc. This is borne out from the epigraphs available from these places. To quote a few instances, from an epigraph dated V.S. 1665from Kekind onformation available about the sutradhara Todara. The epigraph from Merta dated V.S. 1677 mentions in a sutradhara Suja. From an epigraph at Jalore dated V.S. 1683, we have a reference to sutradhara Uddharan and his sons Todara, Isar, Taha, etc.

    Sculptural work in Temples

    The earlier sculptural works of the times of the Mauryas, the Shungas and the Kushans left their impact in the blending of the plastic art of the country in the later ages to such a high perfection that the half closed elongated eyes puffed and highly developed breasts, the slim waists, the broad hips, transparent draperies, rich and intricate jewellery, various styles of coiffeurs, swinging pendents from the ears, and leaning curvature of the body as a whole all characterstics assembled into a splendrous synthesis in the classical renaissance. Through a continuity of a thousand years from Maurya's to Gupta's various foreign races came into the country. The north-western border of Rajasthan was the only way for the attacks of the barbarian hordes— The Hunas, Parthians, Seythians and Shakas. The Central Asian Turks ousted the wild tribes from Afganistan and Northern Punjab, who also in turn entered Rajasthan and settled at various places. It became necessary, for the local inhabitants to maintain certain cohesive order of relation, based on Dharma. The invocations of God, through construction of temples, became necessary. As time passed the social assimilation of the Hunas, the Gurjaras and the Rajputs resulted in the acceptance of Hinduism, and faith in the supreme, which culturally led to the worship of various forms of deities such as Shiva, Shakti, Vishnu, Surya, Ganesha and their respective consorts, children and attendants. The temples built by the Gurjara-Pratiharas at Abaneri and Nakti Mata temple in Jaipur district, and Osian in Marwar, are the clear evidence of their high aesthetic taste. In spirit, in the poetic symbolism, in the idealistic anatomy of human figures, in the expression through the medium of amorous and erotic themes, the sculptures in the above temples may fairly be said as the legacy of the Gupta traditions.

    Sculpture of this period has iconographical importance and the images have dynamic artistic movements, the innocent divine vulgarity, stupendous forms and the action of the chisel. The chisel of the sculptor moved from simplest forms of the earlier temples of Osian and Mandore and went through the intricate decorations, exquisite fineness at Kiradu and reached its zenith in Delwara temples of Abu and Ranakpur. Beautifully erected temples at Osian, Buchkala and Mandore (Jodhpur district), Goth-Manglod and Kekind (Nagaur district) and Bhinmal and Shiwada (Jalore district) were not only full of vigour and poise but were also gems of architecture. Brahmani Mata temple is also a post Gupta period at Nagaur.

    Pratihars also constructed new temples and rebuilt the Gupta's temples but unfortunately these monuments suffered heavily at the hands of early Muslim hordes. Parmaras built the group temples of Kiradu (Barmer district), Vishnu temple and Sanskrit Paathshala (Jalore district). These temples are superb creations of that time. Chauhans built Somnath temple and Nadole temple (Pali district) and Sanchore, Raamseen and Sundhamata temples (Jalore district). These temples are known for their sculptured decoration and architectural richness. Rathores built many temples all over Marwar. Banshiwale ka Mandir at Nagaur, Chaturbhuj temple at Merta, temples of Ghanshyamji, Gangshyamji, Kunj Bihariji, Raj Ranchhodji at Jodhpur and many more other are the prominent temples built by Rathores.

    Erotic scenes play a most prominent role in Indian art. A beautiful woman was generally regarded at the highest bliss to be hoped for on the earth as well as in the lower heavens. Kamakala (the art of sex) was considered to be one of the sixty four arts, therefore, as a part of education it was openly shown through sculptures in sexual poses even on walls of temples. The depictions of Kamashastra, as a matter of fact, opened a way for the development of music, dance and painting. In the absence of any of these it was difficult to reach the mystery of the 'Rasa'. Hence the sculptor was obliged to carve the figures of the Yakshas and Yakshinis, and Gandharvas (the heavenly musicians), types of ladies and various dancing poses all around the walls of the temples.

    The cult of Shaktas emphasised on the worship of phallus and vagina for attainment of salvation and the concept consequently inspired the artist to carve out poses of sexual exercises and the numerous beautiful poses of females in nudity. The Gods were also shown with their consorts in various amorous poses.The nude and seminude representations have also been found on the temples of Marwar at Osian, Mandore, Kiradu, Chandrawati and Ranakpur.

    Hindu Temples of Pre-Rathore Period


    Osian is situated 58 kms from Jodhpur. The temples at Osian exhibit a wide range of rich variety and excellence of medieval sculpture. The earliest temples erected by the Abhira kings are those of three Harihar temples of 8th century. Incarnations of Vishnu, Krishna's life, Gods of the Vedic hymns-vayu, Chandra, Surya, Kubera, Indra, Varuna, the battle between the Gods and Asuras, the Navgrahas are elaborately sculptured on the outer walls of the temples. In the Jain temple of Mahavir, there is an inscription of Vatsa Raj of the Gurjara Pratihar dynasty who, in the middle of eighth century, established Gurjara supremacy in the cities of Osian, Bhinmal and Mandore. The temple dedicated to Mahavir comprises of a richly decorated Toran leading to an open porch a closed hall and the sanctum. The Sun temple show the height of the power of Gurjars who enshrined the God 'Sun' brought from Central Asia.

    The Sachiya Mata temple very late, according to the inscripions in the temple of V.S. 1236-34-45, has been disfigured by rennovations and ail sorts of paints. At Osian many temples with fine sculptures attract the visitors. Two sculptures particularly attract the visitors - one depicts a daughter of the Abhiras with her charming poise and attractive body. The second sculpture is that of a woman with a bow, with her ''proud defiant face bent backwards to complete the curving arch of her body.'' There are sculptures found at many other places also untouched by the analyst. No doubt, the State is replete with specimens of frescoes, paintings, sculptures and the like yet many of the specimens were destroyed during the course of numerous invasions 'the Sword arm of India' had to face from time to time.

    Kiradu (Barmer District)

    The dilapidated temples of 11-12 centuries are situated about 124 miles from Jodhpur and 16 miles north-west of Banner. An inscription of V.S. 1219 incised on the porch wall of The temple of Someshwar reveals that Sindhu Raj Parmar was the chief of Marwar. The other two inscriptions of 1209 and 1235 show that Solankis of Gujrat- Kumarpal and Bhimdeva were the rulers of Marwar and that the old name of the place was Kiratkupa. Someshwar temple is the biggest of all the other four smaller shrines of Shiva, and Vishnu. The vase and flower motif, carved on pillars, is best seen in the main temple of Someshwar. The exterior of the shrine consists of various scenes from the Krishna's life and Ramayana. The Siva temple close by also presents scenes from the Ramayana. A number of fragmentary pieces have been exhibited in the Sardar Museum at Jodhpur which are quite lovely and throw a light on the dresses and ornaments of that period.

    Sire Mandir, Jalore

    Sire Mandir, Jalore is lacated at Kanyagiri hills near Jalore town. This is a highest Nath chair of Marwar region, that is why it is called Sire Mandir. It is said that yogi Jallandharnath did meditation at this place. The place is also associated with certain miracles. Parmar king Rao Ratansingh built a Shiv temple here which is known as Rataneshwar Mahadev Mandir. Maharaja Mansingh of Jodhpur renovated this temple on suggestions given by hermit Ayas Dev Nath. A water reservior (Jhalara), two Wells (Nirmal Jalkoop and Chandankoop), meditation cave (Bhanwar Gupha), palaces for ladies and jents and other constructions can be seen even today.

    Jagnath Mahadeo Temlpe, Jalore

    This temple was constructed by Chauhan Pincess Rudal devi in the reign of his brother Samar singh (1182-1207). Many stone inscriptions pertaining to this event can be seen here. Chauhan ruler Chachag deo has mentioned about this temple in his stone inscription of V.S. 1326 at Sundha. This temple is located about 20 kms far from Jalor district head quarter.

    Apeshwar Mahadev temple, Ramseen

    Apeshwar Mahadev temple at Ramseen in Jalore district, was built in 13th century A.D. by Songara Chauhan rulers of Jalore. It is a chariot shaped temple. A five feet statue of Lord Shiva is worshipped in the temple. The temple has been renovated many times. In this process a large number of old statues have been destroyed.

    Varah shyam Temple, Bhinmal

    This is also a old temple. A seven feet high and 2.5 feet wide idole of Lord Varah (incarnation of lord Vishnu) is worshipped in the temple. This is a post Gupta idole and must be of Pratihara period of history.

    Sundha Mata Temple, Jaswantpura

    This "Shakt tantrik peeth" is said to be very old. It is located in a cave on Sundha hill in Jalore district. Now a statue of Chamunda Mata, carved on a cave wall is worshipped here. An adjoinig cave is known as Bhur-bhuvah-swah-eshwar temple and dedicated to Lakulish sect of Shaivism. An idole of Lord shiva is worshipped in this cave. A reference about this temple is available in Skand Purana of 7th centuray A.D.

    Rameshwar Mahadev Temple, Jodhpur

    The Rameshwar Shivalaya near Surajkund outside Chandpole is considered to be a Siddh peeth. It is said that the Shivling here is Jyotirmay Ling, which was brought and established here by a saint in 1250. The saint took eternal meditation here the memorial of which is still there in the verandah of the temple. During Rao Maldeo's reign in 1538, Seth Rama Maheshwari Mutha constructed a small temple here. In 1544, the Pathan soldiers of Sher Shah Suri attacked this temple. Maharaja Sur Singh renovated the temple in 1615 and also constructed Surajkund and a bathroom.In 1644 idols of Shiv Panchayat and other gods and goddesses were established here. The present temple was made by Maharaja Jaswant Singh in 1651. During Maharaja Ajit Singh's reign when Nawab Tewar Beig attacked the temple, Pujari Jagan Purush took the Jyotirlinga to his home. Many constructions were done in the temple during Maharaja Takhat Singh's reign in 1844 and Maharaja Jaswant Singh's reign in 1876. Renovation was also done during Maharaja Umed Singh's reign. Milk, sandalwood and Ved Mantras are offered to this Jyotirlinga.

    Hindu Temples of Rathore Period

    There are many temples in Jodhpur city, built under Rathore rule but the temples of Kunj Behari, Ghanshyam, Balkrishna and Ranchhodji, Ramdeoji and Gajanandji are the most well known. Other temples are Tija Maji ka Mandir, Nazirji ka mandir and Deonathji ka mandir (Mahamandir).

    Gang Shyamji Temple

    Rao Ganga (1515 - 31 A.D.) was married to Padamawati, daughter of Rao Jagmal of Sirohi. The statue of Krishna that Jagmal worshipped was very much liked by Princess Padmawati. After marriage, while leaving Sirohi, Padamawati asked her father for the statue but Jagmal had to refuse because he also loved this statue very much. Then Padmawati asked Gangaji to take the statue from Jagmal in dowry. Jagmal gave this statue to Gangaji. He established the statue in Mehrangarh fort and it came to be known as GangShyamji. After some a big temple was built for it in Old Dhan Mandi which is now known as GangShyamji temple.In 1679, Aurangzeb's military commander Tebar Beig destroyed the temple and constructed a mosque. Maharaja Ajit Singh (1707-24 A.D.) made five temples at that place. Gang Shyamji Temple was surrounded by four other temples. In 1760 Maharaja Vijai Singh renovated it and converted it into a big temple. In 1929, Maharaja Umed Singh again renovated the temple and got gold work done on the main door.

    Ghanshyamji Temple

    Ghan Shyamji temple is located in Juni Mandi, near Gang Shyamji temple. When Gang Shyamji was brought to Jodhpur, after a few days in the fort, the statue was kept in Ghan Shyamji temple. Present Ghanshyam Ji temple was built by Maharaja Ajit Singh. Having large domes, this temple is made of red sandstone. A stone inscription in the temple gives the date of its foundation, as 1718 A.D. Inside the temple, the stones have SriKrishna and Gopis carved on them.

    Kunj Bihari Temple

    Kunj Bihari Temple in Katla Bazar was built by Maharaja Vijai Singh's Paswan Gulab Rai in 1779 A.D.; She was a Vaishnav follower of Gokuliya Gosains. Kunj Bihari seems to be a replica of Ghanshyamji temple. The top of the temple and its entrance are examples of architectural excellence. On left of the entrance are massive elephants. On the entrance is a statue of Meera facing towards Lord Krishna in Garbhgriha (Central hall). This statue was earlier established in Sita Ram temple in Kabutron ka Chowk. The Sita Ram temple and Hanuman temple of Mandore are said to be parts of Kunj Bihari temple and expenditure of these two is also borne by the Kunj Bihari temple's funds. This is one of the grand temples of Jodhpur. Pooja is performed six times a day. Special functions are arranged on Janmashtmi, Annkut, Diwali, Holi, Radha Ashtmi etc. The temple gates are opened twice a day from 6.00 a.m. to 12.00 noon and from 6.00 pm till midnight.

    Raj Ranchhodji Temple

    Raj Ranchhodji temple was built by Queen Jadechi Rajkanwar after the death of her husband Maharaja Jaswant Singh. Rajkanwar was the daughter of king Jamvibha. At the age of nine, in 1854 A.D. She was married to Prince Jaswant Singh. Jaswant Singh did not go for the marriage himself to Jamnagar, but sent his sword, with which the princess got married. After marriage the princess came to Jodhpur and then went to Jamnagar after a few days. After four years at the age of thirteen she came to Jodhpur. Once entering the fort, she never came out of it. That time this temple was made outside the city wall on a high dune near Baiji Ka Talab. By including the first name of the queen 'Raj' this temple became Raj Ranchhodji Temple. It was completed in 1905.

    Rasik Bihari Temple

    Rasik Bihari temple is known more as Nainiji temple. Made of red and white stone, this temple is constructed on a 17 feet high rectangular platform on Udai Mandir road. The Sabha Mandaps are made on red sandstone pillars. The Garbhgriha is surrounded by a gallery (Parikrama), made of white stones. The temple has statues of Shiv Panchayatan and Sun on seven horses. The open space between the temples has a white marble statue of Kamnandi. According to the inscription on it, it was brought by Maharaja Jaswant Singh in 1885 A.D. The temple is devoted to Rasik Bihari (Lord Krishna) and Goddess Radha. It has statues of Lord Vishnu, Garuda and Hanumanji on both sides of its doors. On one part of the main door Adi Vinayak Ganeshji can be seen. This temple has been taken over by the Archaeological Survey of India.


    Maharaja Man Singh built this temple to show respect towards his guru Aayas Dev Nath. This huge temple is located at some distance out of the old city near Merti Gate. The foundation for this temple was laid on 9th April 1804 and it was completed on 4th February 1805, with a budget of 10 lakh rupees. The main temple is made on a massive platform and approximately 100 artistic pillars support the ceiling. The Garbhgriha has a white marble seating space with a statue of Jalandhar Nathji on it. The interior portion has beautiful pictures of 84 yogasanas and famous Nath yogis. The main dome of the temple is surrounded by other smaller domes. Two beautiful palaces have also been made in the temple compound. In one resided Nathji Maharaj and the other was for the holy spirits of earlier yogis. There is a large bed in this palace and it is said that the holy spirits come and rest on this.The carving in the temple and palaces was done from a gold instrument and still retains its beauty. The designer glasses wall paintings and shell polish of the temple have a timeless beauty. At the ground floor of the palaces there are stables and Toshakhana etc. Some important inscriptions have also been found from the temple. One inscription says that it was the duty of the temple to save the life of anybody who took refuge here. One part of the temple has the cremation ground of hermits. It also has some memorials. Mahamandir has a wall surrounding it and giving it the look of a fortess.

    Udai Mandir

    Maharaja Man Singh built Udai Mandir for Bhim Nath near Merti gate. It is a great building from architectural point of view. It has big basements and two tunnels, one going to Mahamandir and the other to the fort. The left of the temple has Udayeshwar Shiv Temple with a well nearby. This well was in use for around 150 years, but later it was buried.A few yards away from Udai Mandir is a haveli called 'Udai Mandir ka Aasan.' The married Nath hermits stayed in this haveli. There are two gates of this haveli and it has three storeys.

    Sheetla Mata temple

    Kaga Sheetla Mata temple is approximately 200 years old. The statue which is now seen here was earlier established in Mehrangarh fort. It is said that Maharaja Vijay Singh's son Sardar Singh died of measles. Maharaja ordered that the statue be destroyed under elephant's feet and thrown in a deserted place. The ministers threw the statue in the hills of Kaga. One day the wife of a gardener dreamt that the statue be established there only. The lady did as she dreamt and slowly the followers kept increasing. People from nearby areas started worshipping the goddesses methodically.When the King heard of this, he wanted to bring the goddess back to the fort, but the royal priest said that it was not possible. Then the King went walking to the temple with his family and begged for pardon. He built a big temple here.

    Hall of Deities

    The hall of Deities at Mandore, was built during the reign of Maharaja Ajit Singh and his son Maharaja Abhay Singh. Before carving the statues on rocks in this hall, their models were made on small stones, which have now been kept in the Mandore museum. This hall is supposed to be the residence of 33 crore gods and godesses. One huge rock has been cut to make 15 statues including those of Chamundaji, Kankali (Mahishasur Mardini), Gosainji, Rawal Mallinathji, Pabuji, Ramdeo, Hadbu, Meha, Goga, Bramhaji, Suryaji, Ramchandrji, Krishna, Mahdeo and Jalandhar Nathji.

    Kala Gora Bhairon : Near the Hall of Dieties are the statues of Kala - Gora Bhairon and Vinayakji. These three statues have also been carved on a huge rock, during the reign of Maharaja Ajit Singh (1707 - 24). Kala Bhairon is on the left while Gora Bhairon has been carved on the right with women fanning them. In the centre is Vinayakji. Both the Bhairon statues have four arms, holding a dagger, Trishul, drum and a skull. Over the heads are huge umbrellas with their mount and a dog under their feet. Gora Bhairon is offered dry fruits and sweets while Kala Bhairon is offered meat and liquor. The Vinayak statue between the two is holding Laddu, Lotus, Sword and an axe in four hands. Riddhi and Siddhi have been carved on his sides, a snake around his neck and his mount, a mouse near his feet. Many more temples in modern time have been built in Jodhpur city. "Shanishchar Ji Ka Than" on the road from Jalori Gate to Siwanchi Gate, "Ganesh Temple at Ratanada", "Shiv Temple at Ratanada", "Kharanana Devi Temple" are very famous among them.

    Temples at Meharangarh fort

    Rathore rulers of Jodhpur erected many historical temples in Mehrangarh fort. Descrption has been given in a separate article- "The Forts and Palaces of Marwar".

    हमारी नई वैबसाइट - भारत का इतिहास -

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  • Historical Jain Temples, Mosques & Churchs in Marwar

    Historical Jain Temples, Mosques & Churchs in Marwar

    Historical Jain Temples, Mosques & Churchs in Marwar

    Jain temples

    हमारी नई वैबसाइट - भारत का इतिहास -

    Western Rajasthan was a big center of Jainism activities in medieval period. So a grand chain of beautiful and historical Jain temples also flourished in marwar. There are eleven well known Jain temples in Jodhpur city for Shantinath, Gaudi Parasnath, Muni Suvrata Swami, Kunthunath Koladi, Sambbavanath, Mahavir Swami, Kesariyanath, Parsavanath (Muthaji ka mandir) and Bheru Bag Parsvanath; there is also Digambar Jain Mandir. Of these, the first is the oldest. The present idol of Shantinath, however, is dated V.S. 1617 (1560 A.D.).

    Nakoda Parshvanath Jain Temple

    The temple of Nakoda Parshvanath is about 10 kilometers South of Balotra and is surrounded by bare hills which form its natural background. Nakoda is an ancient place. In the 3rd century A.D., there existed two cities- Virampur and Nakoda each 20 miles apart, founded by Virsen and Nakorsen respectively. In both the places, there were big Jain temples of 52 cells and their consecration ceremonies, were performed, at the hands of renowned Acharya Sthulibhadra but those temples were destroyed by Alam Shah. The consecration ceremony took place in V.S. 62 at Nakoda, at the hands of Acharya Mantung suri. In V.S. 909 (852 A.D.),there are said to be 2700 houses of Jains in Virampur and the idol which was kept hidden in Naghrida (Kalidrah), was installed in V.S. 1429 (1372 A.D.) at Virampur or Nakoda. This main idol at Nakoda is of Lord Parshvanath. It is 23 inches in height and black in colour. It is very attractive with its tutelary deity Bhairava. The people from far and near, visit the shrine and make offerings to Nakoda Bhairava, on ful¬filment of their desires. Besides this main temple, there are the temples of Rikhabdev (Lachi Bai's temple) and Shantinath, besides 35 idols in the underground celt. There are few extensive Dharmashalas, in the compound of the temples, for the pilgrims to stay in. Every year, a grand fair is held on Pash Badi 10, the birthday of Lord Parshvanath.

    Ranakpur Chaumukha Jain Temple

    Ranakpur is 22 kilometers from Falna Junction on the Delhi-Ahmedabad line of the western railway. Jain temples of Ranakpur are located in a complex. The central temple in the complex is called Chaumukha and is an interesting example of the richness of carving and sculptural art in medieval Rajasthan. The temple covers an area of 40,000 square feet, has 29 halls and contains 1,444 pillars; no one pillar is like another in the detail and wealth of the delicate carvings that adorn all of them. The massive and extensive 'Chaumukha' temple at Ranakpur (l438 A.D.) is a most remarkable monument. The Jain shrines at Ranakpur were strongly influenced by the Circular lotus motif style of the ceilings and pillars of Abu temples. The four faced shrine is dedicated to Rishabhadeva the Jain Tirthankara and there are subsidiary shrines around the main temple. The entire structure is erected on a lofty basement surrounded by a high wall. There are sixty six small cells, inside the boundary wall, adorned with sculptures. Each cell or shrine has got a spire over it. The ceilings, of the structure of the temples, are intricately decorated with Carvings. The Parshvanath temple has got some erotic scenes carved on its exterior.

    Narlai Jain Temple

    Narlai is only 3 miles from Ghanerav. There are 11 temples among them, the Adishvar temple is said to be about 1000 years old. The eldest temple is of Suparshvanath (the seventh Jain Tirthankar) having sculptural art. The Neminalh temple on the hill is also famous. It is said that one of the hill temples was brought by a Yati, with his magical power. Round about SuparshvanathTpmple, there were existing once, 2700 houses but now they are all lying in ruins.

    Nadol Jain Temple

    About 7 miles from Narlai, there is an ancient place called Nadol where once resounded every evening 999 bells indicating 999 temples. There are 10 Jam temples, the famous being that of Lord Padma Prabhu(the sixth Tirthankar), the idol being consecrated in V.S. 1681, (1624 A.D.), by Jaimal, the minister of Maharaja Gaj Singh of Jodhpur. The temple is architecturally beautiful. The popular Jain verses of Laghu Shanti Stavan, were composed here in V.S. 300 (243 A.D.) by Acharya Manadev Suri. Col. Tod, the famous historian of Rajasthan, found ample material from this place including hand-written scriptures (which he took away with him), and the family trees of the popular kings Shrenik and Samprati.

    Varkana Jain Temple

    From Nadol, at a distance of about 5 miles, famous Jain temple of Varkana is situated. The temple is of Lord Parshvanath having 52 shrines. It was built in V.S. 1211 (1154 A.D.), with hand-some designs of carvings. The place is calm and quiet. There is a Jain Dharmashala for for the pilgrims to stay in. From Rani, this place is only 4 miles. Every year on Posh Badi 10, a fair is held within the precincts of the temple.

    Chandrawati Jain Temple

    The monumental site is five miles South of Abu Road station on the western railway line in Sirohi district. Prior to the possession of the Parmar rulers in 10-11th Century Chauhans ruled over the territory of Cliandrawali. Dharawarsh was a very brave and glorious ruler of the Parmar dynasty in 12th century. The old name of the place was "Chadaul" where there were about eighteen hundred Jain and Saivite shrines. Adinath temple may have been the best of all others. The temples were built time to time over a period of five hundred years from 5th Century to 10th century, by the Parmar and the Chauhan rulers. The famous historian Col. Tod for the first time in l9th Century, made a Survey of the area and found ruins of 18 marble temple. Even now there exists a village in the name of "Chandoli," which is a variegated term of old chandrawati, in Sirohi district. Several images of Gods and Goddesses hava been found from the monument and a few have been put in the Government Museum, in the premises of the Governor house at Abu. Many other pieces of scuptures have been collected and stored at the site, by the Stale Archaeological department.Chandrawati is now all in ruins along the banks of the river of the Same name, and its past glory is found only in the broken pieces of Kinnaras, Yakshas and Yakshnis, Gandharvas, domes, columns and bracekets.


    So far as the mosques are concerned the earliest is at Amber, with a dated epigraph lodgd in it. All without any exception, whether big or small have big or small minarets, a hall, big or small for offering prayers and a pond for washing hands and feet before the visitors go in for offering prayers. About 1314 A.D., Ala-ud-din Khilzi, after a lengthy siege, captured Jalore fort from Kanhaddeo Chauhan, and a three-domed mosque, said to have been built by him, is still in good repair and daily use. There are many historical mosques in whole Marwar area. In 1294 A.D. Jalaluddin Firoz Khilji conquered Mandore. He built a mosque here in which an inscription of that time is still available. In 1544 A.D.

    Shershah Suri came to Jodhpur, after conquering Ajmer. He razed the temples at Jodhpur fort to ground and made a mosque there. Maldeo was succeeded by his son Chandrasen who was a brave and self respecting king, but could not win the support of his brothers and other Rajputs. Thus, the ruler became weak and Jodhpur was conquered by Akbar. Akbar's military general Hasan Kuli Khan immediately built a mosque on Jodhpur fort and deployed military on the boundaries.

    Ek Meenar Masjid, Gol Takia Masjid, Sodagaran Mohalla Masjid, Jama Masjid, Iqra Masjid, Eidgah Masjid, Jalorigate Masjid, Mohalla Nagauri Silawatan Masjid, Raza Masjid, Madina Masjid, Kayamkhani Masjid and Cheerghar Masjid are prominent mosques of Jodhpur city. In Chhodawat village of Bhopalgarh block of Jodhpur district, there is a 400 year old mosque. It is known as Kawaskhan's mosque. Peer Baba's mosques is situated in Basarli village of Balesar block.

    In 13th and 14th century, Nagaur was a prominent seat of Muslim rulers for a long time and many Mosques were built in Nagaur, Deedwana, Ladnu, Makrana and other sorrounding towns. In 1725 A.D., Takhat Singh, prince of Jodhpur became an independent ruler of Nagaur. He dismantled a lot of mosques and made Hindu buildings there. Colonel Todd wrote that he had declared death sentence for anybody who gave 'Ajaan' for Namaaj. The town wall of Nagaur is more than 4 miles in length, between 2 and 5 feet thick, and on the average 17 feet high. The battlements bear many Arabic and Persian inscriptions, obtained from mosques demolished by Maharaja Bakht Singh in order to repair breaches caused in warfare. Of the numerous religious edifices, two Hindu temples and a five-domed mosque are specially noteworthy.


    Churches, the religious edifices of the Chritians for offering prayers on Sundays and other religious occasions have a set pattern of architecture. They give place to a conical flat structure in the front with a cross outside and a big hall inside for the congregation to offer prayers.Though these Churches are for Catholic and others and are named after prominent Christian Saints, they conform to a certain style of architecture, which is typically western. Those, which are Catholic are decorated from inside while others are not.

    The population of cristian community in Jodhpur state was 207 in 1881, 210 in 1891 and 224 in 1901 A.D. In 1901, 111 cristians were native, 58 Europians and 55 Eurassiana. Out of 111 native cristians, 44 were Presbyterians, 28 Roman Catholics and 27 belonged to the Church of England. The United Free Church of Scotland Missan has had a branch at Jodhpur city since 1885. The State is included in the Anglican see of the Bishop of Nagpur and the Roman Catholic Prefecture of Rajputana; the latter was established in 1891-92; is administered by the Capuchin Fathers of Paris, the Prefect Apostolic having his head quarters at Agra. With the increasing numbers of cristian population, many churches came in to existance. Sumer well Memorial church, Saint Theresa's Church, St. Patricks Church, St. Theresa's Catholic Church, 7th Day Adventist Church, St. Andrews hall and D road church are main church in Jodhpur. Many more churches also exist in Jalore and Nagaur districts.

    Sumer well Memorial Church

    Sumer well Memorial church Jodhpur was the first church opened in Marwar. It was open on 11 January 1927. It was the first church of Jodhpur. Maharaja Ummed Singh the then ruler of Jodhpur was the chief guest on this occassion. The building of Church is made of Chheetar stone and is a good example of rich architect. The whole Church is constructed in cross shape. Jodhpur Maharaja gave 2500 Pound sterlings. Maharani Badan Kunwari also gave 200 Pound sterlings for construction work. The build work was done under the supervision of Railway engineer E.E.V. Temperl. Dr. Theodor Arm dedicated this church to Doctor Sumer well.

    Saint Theresa's Church Jodhpur

    Saint Theresos Church was founded in 1934 A.D. It is a Catholic church. Its plan was prepared by famous architect G.A. Goldstra. The whole building of church is made of Chheetar stone. The cruce of church is standing in the left side of its entry gate, it was built in the memory of James Walston, the then prime minister of Jodhpur state. Father Zentilius was the first Padari of church. Maharaja Ummed Singh and Maharani Badan Kunwari donated a handsome amount to the church for its construction work.

    हमारी नई वैबसाइट - भारत का इतिहास -

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  • Historical Water Structures & Gardens in Erstwhile Princely state of Marwar

    Historical Water Structures & Gardens in Erstwhile Princely state of Marwar

    Historical Water Structures & Gardens in Erstwhile Princely state of Marwar

    हमारी नई वैबसाइट - भारत का इतिहास -

    Erstwhile Princely state of Marwar was situated in eastern part of Thar desert. There was no perennial river in the whole state. Luni was the longest river which could flow for a few days in rains only. Meethari, Jojari and Gunai Mata were the subsidiary rivers of Luni and could flow hardly for 15 days in a year. Sambhar, Deedwana and Pachpadra were natural lakes in the state but all natural lakes contained salty water which was brackish in test but good for producing salt.

    Lakes, Ponds and Wells

    Though Marwar was scarce of water but people were aware of its importance. They used to collect rain water in ponds and tanks in their houses as well as in fields and forests. Rulers, nobles and wealthy merchants of Marwar built many artificial lakes, water tanks, ponds, wells, step-wells and reservoirs through out the state.

    Bal Samand Lake

    Bal Samand lake is located on Jodhpur - Mandore road, 7 kms from Jodhpur. It was constructed in V.S. 1216 (1159 A.D.) by Parihar chief Balak Rao. Approximately one kilometer long, 50 meters wide and 15 meters deep this lake has been made by storing the rain water coming from the hills. Maharaja Sur Singh later constructed an artistic eight pillared palace with three entrance gates between this lake. He also constructed a Baradari and another small artistic palace near the lake. They have beautifully carved stones, polished with shells and have filigiree work. Near this 60 feet high palace, another small building was made by Sur Singh for his queen. It also had a garden for ladies. Jaswant Singh (II) later planted rose shrubs in this garden. Water was supplied to Gulab Sagar, Fateh Sagar and Sardar Sagar canals from this lake.

    Kaylana Lake

    Located eight kms West of Jodhpur, Kaylana lake was constructed in 1872 by Pratap Singh, the then Prime Minister of Jodhpur. It is spread over 84 square kilometers' area. Earlier this area had palaces and gardens made by Maharaja Bhim Singh and Maharaja Takhat Singh. These were destroyed to make Kaylana lake which takes care of the water supply to the city today also. Also known as Pratap Sagar, the area around this lake was full of wild boars and was a secured hunting place for the royal members. But it has not remained so with the increase in population. Near the lake is a Dak Bungalow of Irrigation department.

    Umed Sagar

    Umed Sagar dam near Kaylana Lake was constructed in 1933 by Maharaja Umed Singh. It is spread over an area of 27 square kilometers.

    Gulab Sagar

    Gulab Sagar water storage was constructed by Pasban Gulab Rai in 1788 A.D., who was a beloved mistress of Maharaja Vijay Singh. Earlier there was another source of water here, called 'Baori', which was converted into Gulab Sagar in the size of 150 x 90 meters. It is Located near Sardar Market in old city area, adjoining to Gulab Rai's palace. Its construction took eight years and a large amount of funds. It has two parts- the smaller one being known as the child of Gulab Sagar. It is said that this part was made in 1835, in the memory of Sher Singh, Gulab Rai's son. Gulab Sagar has carved stairs around it whose beauty can still be seen.

    Fateh Sagar

    Fateh Sagar was made near Merti Gate by Maharaja Vijay Singh in 1778. The size of this pond wis 140 x 75 meters. It was used to get water from its Southern canal linked with Bal Samand as well as Kaylana lake. Beside this is a temple named Ramanuj Kot, belonging to Ramanuj cult of Vaishnavs. This temple was constructed in 1866.


    Ranisar was made in 1459 by Jodha's Queen Jasmade Hadi near Fateh Pole of Mehrangarh. Padmasar was made near it by Queen Padmini of Rao Ganga, daughter of Rana Sanga of Mewar.

    Tapi Baodi

    Tapi Baodi was constructed in 1675 by Tapoji Tejawat. It is 40 feet wide and 250 feet long and located at Hatdiyon Ka Chowk in Bhimji Ka Mohalla. It was constructed in four years with 72 thousand rupees. This longest Baodi of the city was the main source of water in Jodhpur city for more than three decades. It has six beautiful and artistic storeys.

    Jaswant Sagar Dam

    Maharaja Jaswant Singh constructed Jaswant Sagar dam in 1892 near Pichiyak village between Bilara and Bhavi villages of Jodhpur district. Five lakh and fifty thousand rupees were spent on its construction, while its renovation during the Seventh plan took one crore fifty three lakh rupees. The water from this dam is used for irrigating an area of 1780 hectares. The greenest part of Jodhpur receives water from this dam. Boating facilities have also been made available for tourists here.

    Shekhawatji ka Talab

    Shekhawatji ka Talab was constructed by Shekhawat Aantarang De, Queen of Jaswant Singh (I) 450 years back, a mile away from Merti Gate. Surrounded by hills on three sides, this pond is spread in an area of 1000 sq. feet and is approx. 20 feet deep, Jaswant Singh (I) also made a grand palace near it which served as their residence during rainy season. The pond is covered with walls made of red stone, which have stairs on three sides. It also has a Baodi in it. Its water was used in case of shortage of water in the pond.

    This pond has also been mentioned in the autobiography of Prime Minister Pratap Singh of Jodhpur. Maharaja Ram Singh of Jaipur had married Indra Kunwar, sister of Maharaja Takhat Singh and his cousin Kesar Kunwar (daughter of Prithvi Singh). His bridal procession (barat) had stayed in tents near this pond. Palaces of Maharaja Jaswant Singh have now been converted into temples. One of them is the Hanuman temple which also has idols of Lord Rama, Laxman, Sita and a huge Shivlinga. Above the pond is a large dome which is now with the Army. Another small dome can be seen in one corner of the temple, which has no inscription on it. A Satsang Bhawan is also made here a few decades ago.


    Seven kms from Jodhpur, there are many cenotaphs of Singhvi Musahibs of erstwhile Marwar state near Akhaisagar. Akhaisagar was made by Bhim Singh's military commander Akhai Raj Singhvi. It is approximately thirty six feet deep and is formed by collecting the water coming from hills around. The centre of this pond has a stone measure which indicates the water level. Singhvi Akhairaj had no child. On a saint's advice he constructed this pond. After his death his memorial cenotaph was erected near this pond. A few other domes of Singhvis also exist. Akhai Raj's dome is facing Raghunath temple.

    Other Water Structures in in Jodhpur City

    Mahila Bagh stepwell (Baori) near Gulab Sagar was constructed by Gulab Rai in 1780. It is also called a Baodi with four-sided ghats. The Mahila or Mayla Bagh garden near it was also made by Gulab Rai. Later Huson General Hospital was opened in this garden and then a school. Artistic domes surround this step well. One of its parts remains covered with water and has beautiful gates under it. Five lakh rupees were spent on its construction. It was also connected to Gulab Sagar through a tunnel. The famous fair 'Lotiyon Ka Mela' was started after the construction of this Baori. In V.S. 1776, Sukh Dev Tiwari made a stepwell in the precincts of Mehrangarh fort, which is known by his name only. It is made between Vidyashala School and Singhodon ki Bari. Nowdays this place is used for funeral rites. It is an example of architectural excellence. Tuwar ji ka Zhalra was made by Badi Tuwarji, the Queen of Maharaja Abay Singh, in 1805.

    Besides these, there were many other baodis (step-wells) and talabs (ponds) in Jodhpur city, like Chand Baodi, Nai Sarak Baodi, Jalap Baodi, Mandore Baodi, Naparji ki Baodi Gorunda Baodi, Vyas Baodi, Chataniya ki Baodi, Sumnohra Baodi, Anara Baodi, Nainsi Baodi, Hathi Baodi, Dhai Baodi, Idgah Baodi, Kharbuja Baodi, Rajaramji ki Baodi, Vyas Baodi, Shiv Baodi, Panchwa Majisa ki Baodi, Ram Baodi, Raghunath Baodi, Jadeji Zhalra, Shri Nathji ka Zhalra, Gowardhan pond, Gangelav pond, Baiji ka Talab, Naya Talab, Neemla Well, Clock tower well, Gaushala well, lotwali well, Satyanarayan yati's well, Ladji's well, Navchowkiya well, Aasan well, Dauji well, Jaita well, Mutha well, Devkund, Golnadi, Motikund, Mansagar, Surajkund etc. Some of these water structures still exist but Many structures have been destroyed in last one century.

    Gardens and Bagechees

    Mandore Garden

    Mandore Garden is spread in an area of 82 acres. There are no definite clues to say how old this garden is but it surely existed during the reign of Rao Maldeo (1532-1572 A.D.).

    The ruler of Marwar state Rao Maldeo was married with a princess of Jaisalmer state, but he enjoyed his honeymoon with a Daodi (maid servent) instead of princess. When Rao Maldeo was returning to Jodhpur, the princess refused to go along with him. Rao Maldeo was very upset so he destroyed the Bada bag royal garden and cut down hundreds of trees and returned to Jodhpur. When Bhati Rao of Jaisalmer came to know about this incident, he sent his minister to take revenge. The Minister came to Jodhpur and stayed in Mandore garden. After 15 days he left the garden, putting an axe under each tree with a message that we are not like you, we don't cut the trees. The beauty of the garden has been captured on celluloid by many film makers. The fountains, especially the jet fountains are an all-time tourist attraction. One can reach the numerous pools by crossing a garden of Bougainvillea. People can sit in shade on one side of these small pools. These pools get the water of Nagadari River. Summer breeze near these pools gives a new life to people. Above this level is a natural pond known as Nagadari. The Nagpanchami and Veer puri fairs are organised in this garden since 17th century. Nagkunds are worshipped by people on Nag Panchami.

    Miyan Ka Bagh

    In 1643 A.D., the Maharaja Jaswant Singh (I) was called to Agra by Shahjahan, while Khwaja Farasat was sent here for Jodhpur's administration. Khwaja was unable to control the administration and was relieved of the charge in 1647, but he did not return to Agra. After his death, he was buried outside Chandpole gate and his memorial dome was made there. Aurangzeb built two 30 feet high towers here. Maharaja Sur Singh's daughter Inda Kanwar made a step well here, while Sur Singh developed a garden which came to be known as Miyan ka Bagh. Two tombs are made inside the memorial, protected by iron bars. It is said that the vegetables of this garden used to be famous for their size. It is said that once when the prince of Kashmir came here to marry the Jodhpur princess, the ruler of Jodhpur ordered to get one cartful of cauliflower from this garden. The sellers that time charged one silver coin for each bunch of the vegetable. A small Shiva temple can also be seen in this garden.

    Ummed Garden and Zoo

    Like Mandore garden, Umed garden also covers an area of 82 acres. Developed by Maharaja Umed Singh, it has green lawns, towering Ashoka trees, roses and seasonal flowers, museum, fountains, library and a zoo. Five gates were constructed in different directions to enter the garden. The zoo in the garden was inaugurated in 1935 A.D. by the then Viceroy Willingdon. During that time it had a lion, tiger, zebra, ostrich and an emu. A separate cage was made for monkeys. In 1978 'Walk-in Avery' was made where one could see different types of birds. A large cage for bears opposite the Avery, sea birds behind it, pigeons in the cages near it, crocodiles, foxes, deers, lions, leopard etc. educate children and mesmerise people with nature's beauty. Various enclosures of the Zoo were mostly situated on the peripheral portion of the public park. After independence, the management of Umaid Udhyan and the Jodhpur Zoo (situated within) was entrusted to the Superintendent, Garden Department of the Govt. of Rajasthan. Subsequently the management of Jodhpur Zoo was transferred from the Garden Department to the Forest Department in 1956. Onward from 1956; the Jodhpur Zoo is being managed by the forest department of Rajasthan Government. A Public Library, named Sumer Sarvajanik Vachnalaya and a museum named Sardar Sangrahalaya were also opened within the park area. Now almost all wild animals have been transferred to Machia Park.

    Nehru Park

    Spread in an area of 14 acres, Nehru Park was developed as a children's park. It was inaugurated on 7th September, 1966 by the then Chief Minister of state, Shri Mohan Lal Sukhadia. The park gets its beauty from the fountain, pond, swings, flower beds, trees and plants here. Earlier this place had Bakhat Sagar pond. But its form deteriorated and the city's dirty water started collecting here. To solve the problems, its upper portion was converted into Bakhat Sagar residential colony, while the lower portion has this park now.

    Machia Safari Park

    During princely state's time there existed a Machia fort between Jodhpur city and Kayalana lake, where rulers used to come with their family for hunting the wild boars and black bucks. The forest, in which this fort was located, also known as Machia forest. Now, Rajasthan government has developed this forest as safari park which is known as Machia safari park. A Biological Park also has been established in this forest which is called Machia Biological Park. It was conceptualized in the year 1982-83. It is located 8 kms away from Jodhpur railway station on the western side of city. This park is basically the satellite zoo of old heritage zoo of Jodhpur. Machia Biological Park has an area of 41 ha. out of 604 ha area of Machia Forest Block. Almost all wild animals of Umed public park have been transfered to Machia.

    हमारी नई वैबसाइट - भारत का इतिहास -

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  • Museums and Academies of Erstwhile Princely State of Marwar

    Museums and Academies of Erstwhile Princely State of Marwar

    Museums and Academies of Erstwhile Princely State of Marwar

    Meherangarh Museum

    हमारी नई वैबसाइट - भारत का इतिहास -

    The Meherangarh museum has various pieces of art owned by the royal family of Jodhpur. Various types of arms and ammunition, royal dresses, swings, paintings of Jodhpur style, palanquins, turbans, musical instruments, cradles, tents etc. are an evidence of the rich heritage of Marwar. The beautiful camping tent which Maharaja Abhay Singh used in the battle field is one of the unique tents of the world. Besides, there is the 3 centuries old golden throne of Jodhpur rulers and statues and other items made of ivory. One of the tents of this museum was exhibited in the festival of India in New York (U.S.A.). This tent of 17 century was known as Lal Dera, which fascinated the Americans very much.

    Cannons Collection : The Fort also stores many historical guns (cannons). Many of these have historical events associated with them. Some of these cannons are named as Kilkila, Shambu Ban, Jamjama, Gubara, Dhuldhani, etc. Kilkila was made by Maharaja Ajit Singh when he was the Governor of Ahmedabad. It is also said that Ajit Singh had bought this cannon from Vijai Raj Bhandari for Rs. 1400 from Ahmebadad. It is said that women used to get aborted hearing the booming sounds of Kilkila and Jamjama. Shambhuban canon was acquired by king Abhay Singh by defeating Sar Buland Khan of Ahmedabad (1730 A.D.). It is also said that Abhay Singh bought this cannon from Surat. Karak Bijali was brought from Ghanerao during Ajit Singh's period. This cannon weighs 14 tonnes. Nusarat was obtained in 1730 A.D. by King Abhay Singh by defeating governor Sar Buland Khan, Sarkar Khan and Gajni Khan of Ahmedabad. "Gazni Khan" was acquired by king Gaj Singh from Jalore Fort when he attacked Jalore in 1607 A.D. One cannon was brought by Sir Partap Singh from China in 1901 A.D. during the reign of Sardar Singh, which can still be seen in the Fort. During King Bhim Singh's reign Mehrangarh had Nagpali, Magwa, Vyadhi, Meerak Chung, Meera Buksh, Rahsya kala and Gajak cannons. All the available cannons of British period have been preserved on the walls of the fort. One has the British crown made on it. This has many barrels, each barrel having holes like cannon from where cannon balls can be fired. Another gun made of fine metal has its front part like a fish's mouth, tail like a crocodile, feet and neck like that of a lion. This cannon has been kept in the Daulat Khana and is sent for international exhibitions. Cannons kept on wheeled trollies were called mobile cannons whereas those kept on the walls etc. of the fort were stationary.

    Elephant Haudah Section : This collection of gold and silver Haudahs or Ambaris is perhaps one of the best in the country. A notable and unique historical piece is the silver Haudah of the Mughal Emperor Shahjehan. This Haudah (Ambari) was presented by the Emperor as a mark of special honour to Maharaja Jaswant Singh I of Jodhpur with an elephant alongwith 100 horses on the 18th December 1657. It is an interesting Haudah following the patterns of Persian style with figures of lion, fish, peacock and a lady surrounded by floral designs, Besides, there are some typi¬cal Handahs of interest. All these have been displayed each on a rectangular platform mounted by 9 traditional flag colours, each having different colours, Crest and Mottos of former states of Rathore Dynasties, off shoot of Jodhpur House.

    Royal Costume Section : Ajit Vilas has a rich and supurb collection of Costumes of Maharajas, Maharanis and princes. Such as furgals, Angarakhis, skirts, achkans, Kashmiri Shawls and host of other exhibits of interest. In this section one can see a pair of historical pearl shoes of Anara Begum. She was the favourite Cuncubine of Maharaja Gaj Singh I of Jodhpur He was a Mansabdar of high rank in the court of Emperor Shahjehan early in the 17th century.

    Mahi Maratib : It was gifted by Shah Jahan to Gaj Singh in 1628 A.D., which used to be given only to the rulers having 5000 Mansabs. It has the mouth of a crocodile, shape of a fish and crown as a moon.

    Daulat Khana (Art Section) : Formerly it was in use for display of jewellery and later on as State Drawing Room. Now keeping in view of its originality, the central space has been utilised as Drawing Room with carved wooden furniture of Victorian period. The outer gallery has been used for display of rare objects of arts made of gold, silver, ivory, etc. in floor and wall show-cases.

    Maan Vilas (Armoury) : This section is unique with display of most selected varieties of arms and armour. Some of them are studded with real gems, sword-hills of jades, shields of gems and dealers. The Match-locks and flint-locks complete with gold and silver work on the barrels, were presented by the Mughal Emperors to the rulers of Jodhpur from time to time. Besides this, there are swords, kataris, bugdas attached with pistols and host other varieties can be seen here. There are some old historical heavy swords of the period ranging from 15th to 18th cenury A. D. The khanda of Rao Jodha, the founder of Jodhpur, is noteworthy, weighing over seven pounds. Collection of rare swords bearing Quranic verses and gold seals on the blade, is an outstanding historical piece.

    Folk Musical Instrument Section : This section pertains to the rare collection of folk musical instruments of Rajasthan, found in deep desert as well as from other places, are on display. Their tunes have been tape recorded along with the photographs of the musicians while singing or playing the instrument.

    Mandore Museum

    Mandore museum was established in 1968 in one of the old palaces of Janana garden. The museum exhibits many inscriptions, potraits, miniatures, handicrafts, remains of various civilizations and things related to body and natural science. All this has been exhibited, in different rooms.The statues section has statues and architectural remains from Mandore, Osiyan, Kiradu, Ghatiyala, Juna, Salawas and Jalore. One sub section has been made especially for Mandore. It houses statues and sculpted structures of Sun, Trivikram, Sursundari, Nat, Yaksha, Durga, Shiva, Kichak, Navgriha etc. from 9th-10th century. These remains show that the artists with religious feelings did not ignore reality in the creation of these artistic pieces.

    Mandore itself was famous for its aesthetics. All the ancient monuments in this sub-section speak further about their excellence in beauty, spirituality, simplicity, decency and expression. Two rectangular rock pieces named 'Arhat' are important monuments exhibited in the museum. One shows a horse rider and a few camel riders. Nearby there is a camel drinking water from the pond. This rock shows the old system of pulling water from the wells. The second rock depicts some soldiers in a chariot pulled by a horse and a few pawns.Two pillars of red stone from Mandore show the mutual attraction between man and woman. It has a few erotic figures in a circle, flowers and leaves and other attractive figures. The second pillar also depicts some erotic scenes with men dancing, singing and playing music. Thus erotic figures and depictions can be seen not only in Khajuraho, Bhubneshwar, Chittaur, Dwarka and Somnath temples, but even in the architecture of Mandore, because 7th to 13th century experienced a wave of such depictions in temples and these pillars are an example of that. The hair styles and dresses in these figures are very attractive.A Sarvatobhadra Ganesh statue obtained from Ghatiyala has been put on a pillar in the porch.

    In Ghatiyala, there is a pillar having Ganesh statues facing all four sides. This pillar was unscripted by Pratihar Kakkuk, brother of Bauk, the ruler of Mandore. Kakkuk had good relations with Marwar and Gujrat. A link to the history of Mandore, this inscription is dated V.S. 918 (862 A.D.).

    Sardar Government Museum, Jodhpur

    Sardar Government Museum, located in Public Park (Ummed Bagh) Jodhpur was established in 1909 and formally opened to public on 17 March, 1936. The museum is named after Maharaja Sardar Singh of Jodhpur. The collection consists of 397 stone sculptures, 10 inscriptions, 1951 miniature paintings, 12 terracotta, 32 metallic objects, 178 arms, 111703 coins, 4107 miscellaneous objects displayed in Archaeological Section, armory, art & craft and historical section. It preserves antiquarian objects which are divided into 22 categories as under: ivory, stone, khas, patwa, metal, arms, wood, leather work, lacquer work, pottery, alum, natural history, miscellaneous textiles, minerals, glass, chir, paintings, educational appliances, antiquity, mother of pearl, salt, numismatics. The prize possessions of the museum are— (1.) Two stone pillars from Mandore, supposed to be of Gupta period, presents various scenes from the life of Lord Krishna. (2.) Padampani Kubera image from Mandor. (3.) Yoga Narayana image (sitting) of 8th century A.D. from Didwana. (4.) Lord Vishnu image (standing) of 7th century A.D. from Pali. (5.) Jivant Swami Image (Standing) of 10th century A.D. from Nagaur district. (6.) Arab coins hoard (8,774). (7.) One Coin of Edward VIII.

    Government Museum, Pali

    Bangar Government Museum, Pali was opened to public in the year 1991. Exhibits of the museum include Costume and Jewellery of Garasia tribe, 326 stone sculptures, 10stone inscriptions, copper plates and 409 coins of medieval period, 22 miniature paintings, 4 terracottas, 3 metallic objects, 8 arms and 258 objects of miscellaneous nature.


    Maharaja Man Singh Pustak Prakash

    The present collection of manuscripts in the royal library of Mehrangarh fort, was started by Maharaja Vijay Singh in 18th century. He was devotee of Vaishnavism. He was fond of paintings and music also. The manuscripts collected by him were mostly religious. This collection was further enriched and bulk of manuscripts, with variety of subjects was added by Maha¬raja Man Singh due to which it took the present form and it was named by him as Pustak Prakash. The Institution has a manuscript library of national importance. Some of the most rare and important oriental books are preserved in its collection. The library contains above 5000 volu¬mes of old manuscripts; 3300 granthas on different subject written in Sanskrit, and 2000 Hindi and Rajasthani granthas. The major portion of collection is in Sanskrit and Rajasthani written by the poets patronised by the Marwar rulers and only few of them have seen the light of the day.

    Rajasthani Shodh Sansthan, Jodhpur

    It is situated about five miles west of the city of Jodhpur in the compound of Choupasani School. The institute came into being in 1955 for the purpose of conducting a scientific study of the history of Rajasthani literature and culture. It has collected about 15,000 old manuscripts, 350 old paintings of Rajput style and thousands of folk songs and examples of folk literature. It has also published a Rajasthani dictionary in four parts and it also arranges to publish important theses on Rajasthan. It has facilities for research work also. Research scholars from India and abroad have availed of this facility so far. Twice a year scholars are invited to lecture on their speciality, at the institute. The organisation is recognised and aided by the Rajasthan Government.

    Rupayan Sansthan, Borunda

    This institute was established in 1961, in the village Borunda stituated at a distance about 100 kms from Jodhpur. Its aim is to collect and publish the folk lore of Rajasthan. In the beginning this endeavour was tentative but, soon it gathered momentum and 13,000 folk tales, 10,000 songs and thousands of proverbs and riddles have been collected. These have been documented through scripting the oral tradition or recording it. This documented material is then disseminated and made available to fellow researchers. It has published, in all, one thousand folk tales in a series entitled Batan-ri-phulwadi in ten volumes, each containing about 500 pages. In the field of music, thousands of songs have been documented. To make the documentation more authentic and vivid 12 songs were made into gramophone records. In association with the National Centre for the Performing Arts,in Bombay the institute made a short film of fifteen minutes in black and white strictly for archival purposes. The film manages to convey to the spectator a fair idea of the musical instruments and song styles and offers a glimpse into the folk legacy of Rajasthan. A monthly magazine devoted to folk culture is being brought out (Lok Sanskriti) by the institute since 1960.

    Rajasthan Oriental Research Institute, Jodhpur

    The institute was established in 1960. Valuable collections of manuscripts numbering about a lakh written in Sanskrit, Prakrit, Apabhramsa, Persian and other languages many valuable manuscripts like Vedas, Brahmanas, Upanishads, Vedanta, Darshanas, Jyotisha, Nyaya, Ayurveda, History etc. are preserved in the institute. Some of the manuscripts are extremely rare. The collection abounds with hundreds of extensively illustrated manuscripts comprising thousands of genuine paintings of brilliance, which flourished during the ancient medieval ages.

    The institute endeavours not only to preserve rare manuscripts but to publish them. Under the name of "Rajasthan Puratan Granthmala" a series of eighty works have so far come out. Catalogues of Sanskrit and Prakrit manuscripts were also published by the Institute under a scheme financed by the Government of India. Several Rajasthani works printed under the scheme "Development of Modern Indian Languages-Rajasthani". A scheme for the preservation and publication of important manuscripts in the Jain Granth Bhandars of Jaisalmer was also taken up by the Institute.In these collections are some manuscripts written on paper belonging to the 12th and 13th centuries.

    A good number of palm leaf manuscripts belonging to still earlier centuries are the main attraction of this treasure. Besides manuscripts, the institution has a useful reference library of printed books containing about 12,000 volumes relevant to higher researches. The institute has seven branch offices established at Jaipur, Alwar, Kota, Udaipur, Bikaner, Tonk and Chittaurgarh. Jodhpur branch has opened an art gallery for general visitors in which many charts, diagrams and calendars related to the tantrik, Jyotish and other subjects have been shown.

    Sangeet Natak Academy Jodhpur

    Sangeet Natak Academy Jodhpur was established in 1957 A.D. It has a vast collection of folk music instuments like Khanjari, Daf, Chang, Madal, Dhol, Damru, Nagara, Damama, Matta, Sarangi, Jantar, Ravan-Hattha, Kamayacha, Rawaz, Tandura, Ektara, Jhanjh, Manjeera, Thali, Khartal, Algoja, Bansi, Poongi, Shahanai, Satara, Mashak Nad, Morchang, Bhapang etc.

    Arna-Jharna Desert Museum

    Padmbhushan Komal kothari established this Desert Museum in outer area of Jodhpur city in recent years. A unique collection of brooms used in nearby villages, Puppets of Marwar area, and various types of arts, local flora and fauna are the speciallities of this museum.

    हमारी नई वैबसाइट - भारत का इतिहास -

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  • Different forms of Art and Early History of Rajput Style Painting

    Different forms of Art and Early History of Rajput Style  Painting

    Different forms of Art and Early History of Rajput Style  Painting

    हमारी नई वैबसाइट - भारत का इतिहास -

    Art is a cultured way of life. The experience of joy relating to the visible or invisible physical or astral body or sentiments being in real form, appear before human beings in expressive forms. That expression is termed art. 

    Indian View of Art  or Kala

    The Hindi synonym of 'art' known as 'Kala', is derived from Sanskrit language. It has been used in Sanskrit literature in numerous interpretations, in which the 16th part of a principal object, "a part of time", and the expected intelligence in performing any task deserves special mention. Before the advent of Bharat Muni, 'Kala' had been applied in almost all other acts of intelligence except poetry, and was a special world for such work of the intellect. Any useful business regarding life had ever been placed in the category of art. The best example of the application of the word is clearly discernible in the Natyashstra by Bharat Muni : "Na tajjanam na tachhilypam na vidyaa na saa kala." The word 'Kala' frequently used by Bharat Muni comes very near to fine art and architecture (Shilpa) is near to a useful art. In India all such knowledge and vocations requiring the slightest intelligence are termed 'Kala'.

    The Western view of art

    The Western view of art seems similar. Art is related to old French 'art' or Latin 'ars', whose meaning is to produce, to express or to adjust. Since the 13th century in England the word art has been used with the meaning intelligence. Since the 17th century the word has been associated with poetry, music, painting, icono¬graphy, architecture and the fine arts. According to place, time and circumstances, the word art has been used in numerous contexts, but still it has never been deprived of expressing the meaning of intelligent acts and thoughtful depiction. Whatever form of art we see, its main characteristic is that it is pleasing to the senses. It expresses the feelings and emotions of the artist and it can be interpreted in different ways by different people.

    Art is a strong form of communication

    Any type of art, essentially tells a story and it is a strong form of communication with another human being that is indirect but deeply profound. Art has a tendency to deeply move our soul and most masterpieces that we see in museums are a silent testimony to that. From time to time intellectuals have defined art in a manner which clearly echoes the meaning of fine art. To attain the exalted status of Shiva and express the beautiful form of truth, art is a powerful medium which according to the tastes and instincts of the artist has been conveyed from time to time for that eternal depiction. Hence through poetry, music, painting and iconography and through construction of splendid buildings, the artist from time to time made his special contribution to society.

    Among the above five arts painting occupies a unique status. Although there are many different forms of art, they can be divided into two classes- visual art and performing art. Visual art includes paintings, sculpture, literature, calligraphy, photography and architecture. Mehndi, Mahawar (Alata), Mandna, Rangoli and Sarvana (for Rakshabandhan) may also be considered as visual arts.

    Performing arts are all forms of dance, music, theater, opera and films. Another way that in which different art forms are classified are fine art, commercial art, modern art and applied art. However, such classifications are a little confusing since some of these art forms tend to overlap and what might be considered as applied art by one person can be considered as fine art by another. Marwar has bequeathed a rich artistic heritage to the cultural heritage of desert area. Indian art would be poorer without the artistic cultural legacy of Marwar. The folk-dances, folk-music, fine sculptures, attractive paintings and charming frescoes have greatly enriched the cultural heritage of land.

    Forms of Visual Arts

    Visual art can be defined as a form of art that uses any medium to represent the artist's idea, emotion and imagination. Visual arts like paintings, handicrafts, sculptures and architecture have evolved with time and different periods saw the emergence of different art movements. In previous chapter, we have studied about sculpture and architecture of Rajasthan. In this chapter we have taken paintings and handicrafts as the visual arts for our study.

    Painting : A chief Art

    Vishnudharmottara Puran says- In this world practice of Painting is the chief of all arts. (As Sumeru is the chief of mountains, As Garuda is the chief of those born out of eggs, As King is the chief of men, Even so in the world is the practice of Painting The chief of all arts. - Vishnudharmottara Puran, 10/3/39) The Puran further describes that the art of painting is considered a subtle means to pursue religion, pleasure and liberation. With this desire for happiness a painting is installed in the home. (Kala-naam pravarm chitram dharma kaamartha mokshdam, Mangalyam prathamam chetadgrihai yatra pratishatham. -Vishnudharmottara Puran, Chitrasutram, 43/38) Such sentiments have motivated the decoration of houses with drawings. Lines and colours are the medium of painting. On any infrasurface the artist could express his feelings through the application of lines and colours. Such infrasurface chiefly belongs to fresco, stone, wood, utensils and 'phalaks' of baked clay, ivory, leather, cloth, palm leaves and paper."

    The artist possesses a distinct characteristic to depict heights, distance and nearness on a plane surface in which he turns his imaginative ideas into visible paintings through the arrangement of colours and lines according to his capability. Hence it is said- "Poetry is a speaking picture and a picture is mute poetry." To create paintings artists have selected different media in accordance with circumstances of time and space and among them are frequently available paintings in the form of frescoes and scripts.

    Origin of Frescoes in Caves

    The art of frescoes belongs to the instinct of primitive human beings. Ancient cave paintings testify to this view. The frescoes in the caves of Ajanta, Ellora, Allania (Prehistoric paintings in caves on the banks of the Chambal near Kota are the oldest specimens of painting in Rajasthan) have attracted worldwide attention of art connoisseurs. Frescoes have been drawn in temples, palaces and cenotaphs. Frescoes have ever been an ancient tradition, and accordingly paintings have been produced with new techniques. The history of wall painting in Rajasthan is rich enough to provide a wide glimpse into the history and culture of this land. There is plethora of wall paintings documented and researched till now. But then there are a lot more waiting to be highlighted and researched over; in the havelis, palaces, forts, temples and other monuments of this vivid state. Merchant class built another kind of havelis, not architecturally noteworthy, but magnificently decorated with murals. Almost every available surface of the walls was covered with paintings, depicting religious and social themes. The dry desert climate of the area has ensured the survival of these paintings and they remain in a remarkably good state of preservation. An interesting facet of these frescoed havelis was that over the years the artists became more ambitious in their range of subjects; having heard of memsahibs who drove cars, of steam engines and trains that carried large numbers of travellers, of the fashionable dress of the Raj, but without having seen any of these wonders for themselves, they painted these subjects as they were described to them or as they had been depicted in pictures that came their way. The results are sometimes hilarious, but almost always imaginative and original.

    Tradition of Script Painting

    The tradition of script painting is very old. Drawing of Padd and Picchavai is done even today in Rajasthan. In regard to script paintings, a Tantric text of Buddhism titled Aray Manjushri Kalp says drawing is to be done on clean white cloth which has borders on both sides- Silk cloth is prohibited for this purpose. Script paintings are available in two forms as Padd or Picchavai scrolls. Padds are based on stories of folk gods while Picchavais relate to Krishna-Lila. Kundalitpat or scrolls have been made with less width and more length. The whole text has been painted in this scroll.

    Development of Manuscript Painting on Bhurj Leaves

    In ancient days the tradition of writing poetry and making drawings on bhurj leaves or palm leaves was kept alive. This resulted in the abundance of pictorial texts preserved in many Jain collections.( From the point of view of the oldest paintings the Jain collections of Jaisalmer and Khambat deserve special mention) The themes of the pictorial texts mostly relate to Jainism. Among them Kalpa Sutra, Kalikacharya Kathanak and Neimnath Charitra deserve special mention. Texts compiled on palm leaves had a definite dimension and the reverse sides of different leaves had been written or painted on. Such leaves had been compiled as texts after making holes in the centre. The invention of paper in the 12th century ushered in a new era in the compi¬lation of pictorial texts. Uttarayan Sutra of V.S. 1277 and Nyaya, Tatparya-Tikka compiled by Vachaspati Mishra in V.S. 1270 and painted on paper are preserved in the Granth-Bhandar of Jaisalmer.

    Credit for encouraging this tradition goes to the Sagun-Bhakti movement and the Mughal rulers of India. The coming of Mughal rule popularised the tradition of text painting greatly. Two artists, Sayid Ali and Abdul Samad, from Persia accompanied Humayun to India and painted the text Ameer Hamza. Besides Babar-Nama, Akbar-Nama, Rajjam-Nama and Tuti-Nama had also painted religious texts like Mahabharat, Ramayan and Anwar-a-Suhali (Panchatantra). After the advent of Akbar the tradition of manuscript painting gathered momentum. The Mughal school, the Rajasthani school and the Pahari school were important links in the art of painting texts based upon Ram Kavya, Krishna Kavya, Sufi Kavya, Riti Kavya, Barah-Masa, Ritu-Varnan, Rag-Ragini, which are still available.

    Development of Miniatures style of Painting

    Miniature art is an offshoot of manuscript painting. On the basis of imagination or poetical sentiments, providing a heading or without a title, such miniatures are available in large numbers in numerous museums and private collections. Laghuchitra or miniature painting is the heritage of Rajasthani painting.

    Rajasthani Painting Nomenclature

    With regard to the nomenclature of Rajasthani painting, scholars hold varied opinion. Some call it Rajput painting and others Rajasthani painting. Ananda Coomaraswamy was the first scholar who scientifically classified Rajasthani painting in his book titled Rajput Painting in 1916. According to him, the theme of Rajput painting relates to Rajputana and the hill states of Punjab. The administrators of these states, often belonging to the Rajput clan, had termed these paintings Rajput. According to Coomaraswamy, Rajasthani painting spread widely from Bikaner to the border of Gujarat and from Jodhpur to Gwalior and Ujjain. Amber, Aurachha, Udaipur, Bikaner and Ujjain had earned the reputation of being centres of artistic activities. Rajputana has been a centre of diverse princely indige¬nous states, but the expansion of Rajasthani painting had taken place from Bundelkhand to Gujarat and states ruled by Pahari Rajputs, that is why the name Rajput painting seems plausible." Vachaspati Garrola had recognised only Rajasthani painting under the auspices of the Rajput style of painting, which seems to be more ambiguous.

    Development of Rajasthani Painting, 6
    th to 12th Century A.D.

    Tibetan historian Tara Nath (l6th century) refers to an artist named Shri Rangdhar who lived in Maru Pradesh (Marwar) in the 7th century, but paintings of this period are not available. The period from the 6th century to the 12th century was a great landmark in the history of Rajasthan. From the 8th to the 10th centuries this province was termed Gurjaratra, hence with the development of art and other vocations painting might have flourished here. Among available compilations, pictorial Kalpa-Sutra (Pls. 1, 2) authored by Bhadrabhau Swami in V.S. 1216 is the oldest available artistic text of India.Dr. Goetz presented his research papers, which throw light on history of Rajasthani paintings. Karl Khandalawala discussed in detail the origin and development of this painting.Scholars like Raikrishan Dass, Pramod Chandra, Sangram Singh, Satya Prakash, Anand Krishan, Hiren Mukherji and others also published scholarly articles from time to time which highlight details of the origin and growth of Rajasthani painting. On the basis of this research and many available ancient paintings, it is now generally admitted that Rajasthani painting is a significant link with traditional Indian painting. Around 1450 A.D. one copy of Geet-Govind and two of Bal-Gopal-Stuti had been painted in Western India. This is the first pictorial text of Lord Krishna which comprises the first seeds of preliminary Rajasthani painting.

    Apbhransh style of Painting, 
    15th Century A.D.

    In 1451 A.D., Basant Vilas painted in the Apbhransh style, whose famous background script was compiled by Acharya Ratnagiri in Ahmedabad, makes special mention of the origin of Rajasthani painting. Up to the 15th century this style of painting flourished in Rajasthan. Using Jain and later Jain texts as the basis on which the painting was done, this may be termed the Jain style, Gujarat style, Western India style or Apbhransh style. Undoubtedly, the period from the 7th century to the 15th century saw an era of impressive growth of painting, iconography and architecture in Rajasthan devel¬oped from the synthesis of original art and the traditions of Ajanta-Ellora. From this point no distinction had ever been made between the Rajasthan and Gujarat styles. In these paintings faces are savachashma, noses resembling that of Garuda, tall but stiff figures, highly embossed breasts, mechanical movements and poses, clouds, trees, mountains and rivers are depicted. Red and yellow colours have been used frequently.

    Amended form of Rajasthani painting, 15th Century A.D.

    The art of coloured paintings was developed in 15th century A. D. It is difficult to tell where preliminary Rajasthani painting flourished in the 15th century, but on the basis of other pictorial texts it may be stated that the amended form of Rajasthani painting of that age had developed with some distinct features. Adi Puran, decorated with 417 paintings, was a text in the Gujarati style compiled in 1540. It was a beacon in the annals of Indian painting. In pictorial Chorpancha-Sika and Geet-Govind texts of that age, this school of painting was appreciably represented. Regarding Rajasthani paintings, two very significant texts are available. They are based on the Bhagwad. The first in 1598 and the other in 1610 had probably been painted somewhere in Rajasthan. In them developed the shape of Rajasthani painting with its special characteristics that had emerged.

    Rajput style of Painting

    Some scholars recognise the Gujarati style as the mother of Rajasthani painting and its guiding spirit. Gujarat was a principal centre where Rajasthani painting acquired its prominent status. The Gujarat style gave birth to the Rajput style, that rare beauty visible in drawings of mountain, river, sea, fire, cloud, tree in the Rajput style originated from the Gujarat style. In regard to the impact of Jain art, many scholars stress the view that it made a significant contribution to the growth of Hindu-Rajput art. Jain art was responsible for incorporating creeper foliage in Indian painting. Later, having surrendered the traditional heritance to the Rajput style, Jain art was lost in oblivion. Jain art does not represent the best art of its period. Hence it is argued that it might have surrendered its traditions to the Rajput style, but it would be a great blunder on our part to admit this view.

    Rajasthani painting in 18th Century A.D.

    The Rajasthani style of painting reached its zenith during the second half of the 18th century. Many styles vied with each other to attain the honour of being crowned as national but it was the fortune of Rajasthani style that it achieved this enviable position. The centres furthering and dealing with the Rajasthani style sprang up in many parts of the country. The Mughal School itself had been absorbed by it. In the Deccan, the Rajasthani school had travelled to Maharashtra in the last quarter of the 18th century and thence to Mysore, Tanjore and Ramesvaram.'' In the 19th century because of many reasons the Rajasthani style lost its original glory and degenerated into a coarse art devoid of vitality, vigour and harmony.

    Classification of Painting Schools

    The distinct characteristic of painting are termed the style of that particular region. In this way, several styles came into prominence in Rajasthan, notably the Mewar, Marwar, Kishangarh, Bundi, Kota, Jaipur, and Alwar schools had achieved great ascendancy. Rajasthani painting may be studied in four parts. In actual practice it has four principal schools in which many styles and sub styles flourished and influenced each other-

    (1) The Mewar school, comprising Chavand, Udaipur, Devgarh, Nathdwara, Sawar styles and sub styles.

    (2) The Marwar school, comprising Jodhpur, Bikaner, Kishangarh, Jaisalmer, Pali, Nagaur, Ghanerao styles and sub styles.

    (3) The Hadoti school, comprising Bundi, Kota, Jhalawar styles and substyls.

    (4) The Dhundar school, comprising Amber, Jaipur, Shekhawati, Uniara, Alwar styles and sub styles.

    In the medieval age it was quite natural for the small and big states of Rajasthan and the neighbouring states to influence each other in the domain of culture.

    हमारी नई वैबसाइट - भारत का इतिहास -

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  • History of Marwar School of painting - 1

    History of Marwar School of painting - 1

    History of Marwar School of painting - (Part A)

    हमारी नई वैबसाइट - भारत का इतिहास -

    Marwar School of painting is recognised the world over. The Marwar School, though greatly influenced by the Mughal School, has greatly added to the glory of art in India. Its significance can, however, be gauged only if we have a deeper probe in the factors that led to the rise and prosperity of Marwar paintings. It is often observed that nowhere in the world the feminine figure has been handled so minutely and that too in a variety moods and poses as has been achieved at Marwar. The grandeur of the Marwar school of painting is well expressed in the Jodhpur style, the Bikaner style and the Kishangarh style as well as in the sub styles of Jaisalmer, Nagaur, Ghanerao, Sirohi, Ajmer. The Kishangarh style has a unique character, but being in a state of Rathores painting there should be linked with the traditions of Jodhpur. Like Mewar, Maru Pradesh followed the traditions of Ajanta. Its preliminary form may be seen from the artistic shape of the gate of Mandore.

    This region attained fame in the domain of art and culture under the rule of the Gurjara-Pratiharas. Tara Nath, a Tibetan pilgrim, referred to Sridhar as an artist of the 7th century in Maru Pradesh. This confirms that the Marwar school of painting had its own earlier traditions. In ancient times, this territory was a part of Gujarat state, and that is why the paintings of western Rajasthan cannot be dissociated from the developed form of the Gujarat, Jain, Apbhransh and other styles. It is assumed that many pictorial Jain and Apbhransh texts were executed in Maru Pradesh. The paintings found in huge collections at various museums, art galleries and private collections of the Marwar area are important landmarks in historical studies. They stand as testimony of the age to which they belong. Right from the 14th to 19th century we come across several paintings which depict history and culture in their true perspective. Kalkacharya Katha, (size 5x7.3 cm.) was painted in V.S.1438 (1381 A.D.). It helps us to study through illustrations the life of the aristocrats, dresses of common men, ornaments and furniture used in the period.

    Jodhpur style

    In 13 century Rathore Seeha established his rule in Maru Pradesh. The art of painting developed in Jodhpur under Rao Jodha, in Bikaner under Rao Bika and in Kishangarh under Maharaja Kishan Singh. In the neighbouring states it was known as the Marwari School of painting, which flourished in many styles and sub styles. After establishing in Mehrangarh fort, Rao Jodha (1438-88 A.D.) contributed impressively to the prosperity and enrichment of Indian culture in this new field. The Jain, Gujarat and Apbhransh styles were revived in new form. Kalpasutra, was painted in V.S, 1536 (1480 A.D.). The illustrated MS. of Kalpasutra has 104 folios, each measuring approximately 4"x8', almost all of which are illustrated (size of illustration 3" x 3"). It depicts bedsteads, mirrors, dhoti, dress of Jaina monks, sari, bath-rooms and their equipments, wrestler's dress, chariots, ornaments, etc.

    It also informs us that teaching was done orally, though the teachers used to have scrolls in their hands for references. Credit goes to Rao Maldeo (1532-68 A.D.) for giving renewed vigour to the cultural traditions and artistic perspectives of Marwar. Maldeo carved out an independent Marwar style and devoted himself to the growth of the arts. From the point of view of primitive art, the Uttaradhyayan Sutra of his time, now preserved in Baroda Museum, occupies a prominent place. Glimpses of paintings of that age may also be visualised in the frescoes of Chaukhela Palace. Kalpasutra, (size 2x11.3 cm.) was painted in V.S. 1517 (1461 A.D.). It may be used for the comparative references through illustrations regarding dress, mode of living and various other aspects. Madhu Prasad Agrawal classifies the Marwar style in four steps or charans. He defines the paintings before the 17th century as initial examples of Marwar style. According to him, the first step flourished during 17th century, second step during 18th century and third step flourished after 18th century.

    Many paintings of the early 17th century belong to the Jodhpur style, and even though highly influenced by the Mewari style possess their original character. Many paintings of the time of Raja Sur Singh (1595-1620 A.D.) are preserved in the art and picture gallery of Baroda and in the private collection of Sangram Singh. Maharaja Sur Singh was an art lover ruler. Dhola-Maru is among the artistic historical pictorial texts compiled during his period and the Bhagwad of Pustak Prakash, Jodhpur, painted in 1610 A.D., is endowed with many special local features. Bhagwat Dashma skandha was painted in V.S. 1667 (1611 A.D.) by Govinda. It consists 423 folios. It gives illustrations from Krishna's life, illustrations of Jatakarma Sanskara, a village school and its out-door games as 'netrabandhana', 'nilayam-krida', 'phal-kse pan', 'Shalar', etc. Rag Mala, an illustrated text painted in 1623 A.D. and preserved in the private collec¬tion of Sangram Singh, is a compilation of great historical value painted for the famous Vitthal Dass of Pali. These paintings are considerably influenced by the art of Marwar. Some miniatures based on verses of Sursagar in the middle of the 17th century in the Jodhpur style are preserved in Baroda Museum and in the collection of Sangram Singh. They express poetic sentiments elegantly.

    Rasikpriya, also available in Baroda Museum, was painted in the same period. Its sharpness of colour combination and abundance of ornament deserve special mention. Another phase of Jodhpur art started in the reign of Maharaja Jaswant Singh (I) (1635-78), a king of high intellectual qualities and a keen lover of art. In his reign, Marwar became an important centre of the Krishna-Bhakti cult, which became the subject of many paintings. Jaswant Singh was contemporary Hindu king to the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, hence the impact of Mughal art was inevitable.The impact of the Mughal school in its original form has been noted in the Jodhpur style paintings of this period. They are very simple, and the sharp outlines, the expression of sentiments and colour combination in these paintings are notable. Because of the spread of the Krishna-Bhakti cult, the effect of folk art on the Jodhpur school may be seen easily.

    Traditions of folk painting were a common feature of the Jodhpur style. The Jodhpur portraits depicting Jaswant Singh I, (The Victoria and Albert Museum London); Ajit Singh (1679-1724), Bharat Kala Bhavan, BHU, Varanasi and M.S. Man Singh II Museum, Jaipur); and Abhai Singh (1724-50A.D.), Museum of Fine Arts, Boston and Sardar Museum, Jodhpur) form an interest¬ing group and gives us enough material to study the Jodhpur Kalam and to prove that the Marwar court had a competent atelier in 17-18th centuries.

    Among these the earliest is a portrait of Maharaja Jaswant Singh I, of about 1645 in which he is shown sitting and conversing with his courtiers. This is a partly coloured drawing, tinged with black and gold. A brave soldier, he ruled with ability till the battle of succession for the Mughal throne. The painting shows him a sensitive person with expressive eyes & the movement of his hand, which could not be completed. The finished faces indicate that this Court scene is meant to be a neem kalam not a fully coloured work. The Maharaja and his courtiers appear in their characteri¬stic of 17th century court costumes— turban, jama kamarband, pyjama and other accessories namely sword dagger and shield which became a part of official costume from 17th century. The twenty-year-struggle and great victory over Mughals by Rathores under the leadership of Veer Durga Dass was a great landmark which gave a popular subject to the local art of painting.

    The scenes of battles, Durgadas riding on horse, hardship of life during struggle days, hunting, etc. were prominently painted during this phase of Marwar history. Maharaja Jaswant Singh's son Maharaja Ajit Singh who was born after his father's death, came to the throne in 1679 A.D., and grew up to be an able ruler. Painting in Jodhpur got a new input during the reigns of Ajit Singh and his successors Abhai Singh and Ram Singh, when the usual literary works Gita-Govinda, Dhola- Maru, Ragmala, Baramasa-portraits were painted in large numbers. Attractive wall-paintings were painted in the palace of Nagaur during the time of Bakhat Singh. A large sized painting in the Bharat Kala Bha¬van Collection shows him "mounted on a state elephant, surrounded by troops and accompanied by ladies of his household." The painting was exhibited in the Art of India and Pakistan exhibition, London in 1948.

    A dated work of V.S 1779 (AD. 1722) is good example of 18th century workmanship. Maharaja Sawai Man Singh II Museum, Jaipur has a portrait of Ajit Singh with a morchhal bardar standing behind him. It is a partly coloured drawing on thin paper (Acc. no. AG. 520-76). A good work, showing Marwar turban and costume it could also be a product of Jaipur atelier as many such portraits of Rajasthan rulers were presented by the Jaipur royal family to the museum recently; some of these have painter's name written on the bark of the painting or on the lower or upper of it, namely Ramji, Ramjidas, Govinda and so on. Though this work does not have any painter's name, stylistically goes with others of that lot. Paintings of this age also had themes like Rasikpriya, Geet-Govind, poetical texts, royal court, festivals, processions, pictures of kings and feudal lords etc. Royal patronage in the reigns of Maharaja Abhaya Singh and Maharaja Ram Singh to artists in the Jodhpur style was generous.

    Abhai Singh (1724-1750) succeeded Ajit Singh. A large number of his likenesses show that he was a man of taste. These can be seen in museums and private collections all over the world. The portraits of Abhai Singh show him engaged in day to day activities- drinking wine, worshipping, sitting in zenana and playing dice. Jodhpur chiefs can be differentiated from others by their heavy turban and heavy built. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston has an inscribed portrait of Abhai Singh, perhaps the earliest likeness of his, showing him drinking; in the zenana. The picture is badly rubbed but gives an idea of Jodhpur court painting. A plain background and pleasant faces of attendants and the raja are of remarkable quality.

    In a portrait from Sardar Museum, Jodhpur, Abhai Singh is depicted watching dance performance. In Indian painting, night is either suggested by starry sky or by lamps and mashals, here two women are carrying mashals and lamp. The women standing in attendance are hol¬ding swords and morchhals. They also suggest that the dance is being performed in the zanana. This type of formal scenes, rather glamorous in nature are bound to be static but these works from Jodhpur are not so hard and on the contrary have a fresh look- pleasing light tones swift movement. A hunting seen" from the above collection shows Abhai Singh on one of his hunting trip.

    Though the gorgeous costumes give one a completely different idea, dogs running ahead of the raja's horse and water birds in the background suggest that the group is going for shikar". This charming picture is full of vigour and has a mughal flavour. It can be suggested here that it is quite possible that Jodhpur court in 18th century had one or two painters trained in Mughal style either at Mughal court or at Bikaner, the neighbouring state. We see a number of portraits prepared in 17-18 centuries which are nice and sophisticated works but such works were only a few, patronized by the court and prepared for rulers and may be for some of his family members. But a large number of miniatures and paintings were produced either for the wealthy merchants or for religious personages.

    A folio from a folk Bhagavata set was exhi¬bited at Asia House exhibition in 1973 from Edwin Binney 3rd's Collection. It was dated about 1625-30 by S. Gary Welch, the author of the catalogue and its proven¬ance was given Marwar. It seems close to popular Marwar paintings and could have been produced for some nobleman or a wealthy merchant. A number of such mini¬atures were exhibited at Lalit Kala Akademi, New Delhi in 1960. Nayika conversing with an attendant ragini Bilawal and many others. These paintings have decorative elements of Jodhpur— lines are firm, colours coarse hut bright and pleasant; patterns used in dress, ornaments and in the architecture consist of simple basic motifs— circles, squares, cross-criss, brick pattern, dots and lines.

    The Khajanchi Collection Catalogue also has one miniature- Nanda crossing Yamuna with Baby Krishna— an important one for the stylistic study on Marwar style of painting, as it shows some 19th century characteristics to come. For example, rain is indicated by bold white broken lines, bou¬quet like decorative trees and fishes in Yamuna for a decorative pattern, Really Jodhpur artists had wonderful sense of de¬sign and an eye for bright colours which made the sand of Marudesh full of life. Some good 18th century miniatures depicting Barahmasa and other popular subjects of that period namely ladies playing chaugan, swinging, worshipping are in the National Museum, New Delhi. Kavipriya, Illustrated, by Keshav, It was prepared at Vitakheda for Maharajadhiraj Jaskarana in V. S. 1780 (1724 A.D.). It consists of 16 prabhavas or chapters, having 180 folios in total. Its illustrations bear beautiful designs of Marwari sarees. Bhaktamal of V. S. 1789 (1733 A.D.) by Narayandas, preserves some paintings of Bhaktas like Pipa, Prithviraj, Jaipal, etc. These may have a faint resemblance of the actual persons but at least they depict the spirit of the Bhaktas.

    The painting of Mira's dress is valuable. Here the identity of the person has been emphasised through forceful touches of the brush. It also preserves the teachings of the Bhaktas. Shri Ramcharitra Paintings of V.S. 18th century, consists of 244 folios. It depicts several important scenes of the ceremonies observed at birth and marriage festivals. The dresses of the warriors have been painted after the Mughal pattern. Bhagwat Dashama skandha of the 18th century, also provides the designs of ornaments and household articles.

    The lay-out of villages and towns can also be conveniently studied with its help. It represents, the manner and mode of dining observed by the Brahmanas, through an illustration. The pastimes of water pranks and wrestling are well-illustrated through paintings. The manuscript gives the names of the painters which have been inscribed on the left-hand side of the picture. Some of the painters are Muslims who co-operated with the Hindu painters to complete the set. Gitagovind is a part of a bound book with folios 181 to 360. It preserves illustrations which are very useful for the study of dresses and ornaments of gents and ladies of the 18th century. Illustrations of the celebration of Holi and Vasant festivals are highly illuminating.

    In 1803 A.D., the last phase of the Jodhpur style opened in the reign of Maharaja Man Singh. There are almost 2500-3000 paintings in the collection of Jodhpur Maharaja, in which Shabeehs are in big number. Some paintings are of 18th century and remaining are of Maharaja Mansingh's period. Ramayana Paintings dated V.S. 1860 (1804 A.D.), consists of 91 paintings, 4 ft. 4'' long and 2 ft. 1'' wide. They depict the life of Rama from his birth to the end of his return to Ayodhya. These paintings are very useful for the study of town-planning of Jodhpur with lanes, bazars and other aspects of town life. Suknas Charitra of the 19th century, consists of 302 paintings (size 1.8" x l.2") and is very useful for the study of the lay-out of houses of villages and towns of that period. It also depicts the common people taking bath in a river. Dholamaru-ri-Vat composed by Kallol in V.S. 1677 (1621 A.D.). Its transcript copy of V. S. 1819 (1763 A.D.) consists of 71 folios.

    The poet wrote out the work at the instance of Harraj of Jaisalmer. The story has been interwoven round the figures of Dhola, the son of Nala, the king of Marwar, and Marwani, the daughter of Pingalrao, the king of Pungal, a part of Marwar. The illustrated part of this manuscript as well as a set of paintings of Dhoamaru, preserved in the Maharaja Mansingh Pustak Prakash Jodhpur, of Raja Man Singh's time (early 19th century) are highly informative as regards the use of beds of petals for princes, wearing of mod at the time of marriage, the style of moustaches, objects of toilets, practice of taking opium among the Rajputs, the toys of children, the indigenous method of sending letters, the roll of Bhats and Bhatnis, Pushkar as a place of pilgrimage, etc.

    From this point of view Dholamaru-ri-Vat is one of our most reliable sources for the construction of cultural history of Rajasthan. Panchatantra Paintings of V. S. 1860 (1804 A.D.), consists of 472 paintings, each measuring 18" x 3", depicting the stories of five tantras written by Vishnu Sharma. The paintings are very important for the Study of secular life of Rajasthan of the 18th century. The dress and profession of a juggler, a washerman, a potter and a Bhil are depicted with accuracy. It also gives a model of the Persian-wheel as it was used in Marwar of those days. Several paintings throw welcome light on the lay-out of the villages and towns of that age along with the set-up of houses. The painter has brought to our notice the demerits of polygamy by painting a scene of a furious quarrel between two co-wives and a husband. For the study of prevalent pastimes and of animal-fights the manuscript is quite useful.

    Shiva Purana, consists of 109 illustrations (size 4ft. x1.5 ft.) depicting the stories of the Shiva Purana. It is a joint work of various painters, like Dhira, Mahadev, Dana, Maheshdan, Satidas, etc., of the 19th century. Here the Shahjahani turban, turra and garments of gents and ladies have been typically painted. The dresses of a hunter, a Bhil, etc., are life-like. It also shows the style of house-construction of the period. A picture of a village school is highly informative.

    In 19th century, the Nath sect dominated the life of Marwar. Ayas Dev Nath was the spiritual guide of Maharaja Man Singh. Nath paintings flourished in many monasteries during that time. Nath Charitra dated V. S. 1880 (1824 A.D.), consists of 63 paintings devoted to the theme of the Nath sect of Marwar. These paintings are based on the Ras-Raj of Mati Ram and were recovered from a monastery belonging to the Nath sect and preserved in the private collections of Ram Gopal Vijayavargia and Sangram Singh and in the State Museum, Jaipur.

    Many paintings of this period in the Jodhpur style were not of high artistic quality. It preserves a picture of the dress worn by Nath Sadhus, and their religious observances. Some of the paintings throw light on certain aspects of the social life of the age to which they belong. The game of the Chaugan, lay-out of houses, irrigation of fields, etc., are its important aspects. Siddha Siddhant Paddhati dated V. S. 1881 (1825 A.D.) is useful for the study of town-planning and some of the features of the Nath sect of Jodhpur. It consists of 25 paintings, each measuring 4 ft. x 1.5 ft. Shiva Rahasya dated V. S. 1884 (1828 A.D.) consists of 101 paintings (size 1.5 ft. X 1.6 ft.) illustrating the life of Shiva. It illustrates the mode of the life of Hindu hermits of that age. Suraj Prakash dated V.S. 1887 (1831 A.D.), painted by Amra consists of 70 paintings (size 1 ft. 7'' X 1 ft.).

    It throws sufficient light on the dresses of the warriors. One of the paintings of water sports is very interesting. From other paintings of the collection of Maharaja Mansingh Pustak Prakash, we also come across the names of some Muslim painters of that time, as Ali Raja, Ustad Qasim, Umrani, etc. In the middle of the 19 century, with the advent of photography, the Jodhpur style, like other styles of painting, started deteriorating.After Man Singh, nothing worth mentioning was produced at Jodhpur. Artists were there, doing regular court work. Portraits of Takhat Singh and other ruler are rather crude in appearance. Court scenes are just formal depictions— artists were concerned neither with portraiture of courtiers nor with creating atmosphere. 

    हमारी नई वैबसाइट - भारत का इतिहास -

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  • History of Marwar School of Painting (Part 2)

    History of Marwar School of Painting (Part 2)

    History of Marwar School of Painting (Part 2)

    Salient Features of Jodhpur style

    हमारी नई वैबसाइट - भारत का इतिहास -

    In Marwar, we have to satisfy ourselves with only medieval period works from three active centers of this region- Bhinmla, Pali and Jodhpur. The Jodhpur style is the principal style of the Marwar School, but today a large number of paintings in this style are not available, and whatever is available belongs to the early part of the 19th century. Despite being influenced by the Mewar School, the Jodhpur style has its own striking features, and as a result its separate constitution comes to light. Males in this style are stoutly built and tall. Their curved mustaches, touching their throats, raised turbans and dress decorated with royal splendour are very impressive. The limbs of females are shapely and plump. Besides local influences, the impact of the Mughal style also deserves special consideration- Application of folk art, combinations of red and yellow, depiction of feudal splendourand of simple life are also highlights of this style. Where drawings of palaces and palatial buildings were made extensively, in respect of scenery, paintings were created to suit the tastes of the capitalists of Marwar. Principal artists of this style whose names have been identified include Virji (1623), Narayan Dass (1700), Bhatti Amar Dass (1750), Chhajju Bhatti, Kishen Dass (1800), Danna (1810), Bhatti Shiv Dass, Dev Dass, Jit Mal (1825), Kalu Ram (1831).

    Infulance of Vaishnavism on Marwar Painting

    Vallabha infulance is quite obvious in the morals and miniatures of the Marwar because of Maharaja Jsawant Singh's association with Shri Nathji. During his time Chopasani became the centre of Vallabha art. According to the statement of Lama Tara Nath, the tradition of miniatures and murals is very old. Nagaur painting of ShantinathTemple is dated 1605 AD. Pali is nearby town of Jodhpur was a prolific Thikana of the painting work during the time of Maharaja Gaj Singh (1610-1630).

    Infulance of Nath Sect on Marwar Painting

    Maharaja Man Singh due to his unconscious faith in the Nath cult, accorded to the Kanphata Yogies a partial treatment. Painting of Jhalandar Nath is clear proof of it.  Mansingh founded "Pustak Prakash" - the library and commissioned many sets of paintings. Many of his portraits show him worshipping Guru Nathji— or in the company of Guru Ayas Nath. Ramayana, Durgapatha, Shiva Purana, Suraj Prakash, Bhagwata, Panchtantra and Dhola Maru are some important works of his time.

    Wall Paintings in shreenath Ji Temple in Mehrangarh

    Wall paintings of Shreenath ji temple situated in the Zenana Deodi part of Mehrangarh Fort, Jodhpur. Major part of the Zenana Deodi is adorned with lyrical paintings executed from top to bottom. The temple room of Shreenath ji, which lies in the eastern part of Zenana Deodi, is also having this kind of art works. However it looks more like a living room, it is considered a temple because of the three idols present in this room.  Painting seems to be made all over the temple room; including the arches, ceiling, pillars and walls. Most of the paintings are visible at southern wall of the room. But rest of the room might also be having such art work hidden beneath the plastered area. Paintings on the arches are having different figural treatment and themes from painting on the pilllars. Simiary, the paintings on ceiling are different in their composition and design when compared to the paintings executed on walls of Shreenath ji temple.

    These paintings are prolific examples to learn and decode the art and aesthetics of Marwar. The room is having more than usual number of pillars, with adoration of paintings resembling to the traditional art of Marwar school of painting. The composition, theme, figure drawing, architecture, flora fauna, landscape and rest other elements of these paintings are so similar to traditional miniature painting of Jodhpur that they seem to have been copied from them. 

    From a comparative glimpse of these compositions, the subject matter and colours seem to have been derived from the miniature paintings, though the miniature paintings have richer palette and varied themes. The themes of these paintings have got a wide spectrum, with depiction on ceiling varying from those on the walls and pillars. Vishnu in various incarnations and episodes dominate the themes. Other subject matter includes Gods, Goddesses, local deities, king's court life, scenes from Indian mythology & epics, various historic episodes that have affected the state and the valorous deeds of the Rajput  icons and kings.

    The themes selected for the ceiling seems quite different from the subject portrayed below. Other than these themes, figures of celestial beings and imaginary unreal figures are abundant which gives a quality of uniqueness and divinity to the room. Other characteristic common to Jodhpur miniature painting and the wall paintings of' Shreenathji temple is the 'Khanjan nayan' typical of Marwar and the pearl ornamentation with figures are bejewelled.  Even the male figures are ornate with pearl strands through their turbans, kundals 

    in ears and such. As far as the costumes are concerned, there are striped non-transparent garments painted over the figures in Shreenath ji temple room. And they also go in hand with the apparel treatment of figures from the miniature painting of early 17 to later 18th century.   Then there are influences from the Mughal painting also. This amalgamation of Persian-Mughal impact is quoted at many places as Irani Kalam  also. Frequent use of Mughal turbans and use of the typical floral depiction brought in by them exemplifies the above point.

    Through a technical survey and study of these paintings it come in view that the walls and ceilings are having a traditional lime based plaster, commonly called Kaudi  plaster. The same plaster is applied on ceilings too. Paintings were made over this very smooth and shiny plaster without preparation of any ground. The technique of painting could be tempera. But since the paintings have lost their pigment due to losing ground adhesion, so the technique could be more of tempera than any other.   

    The paint layers are carried out directly on the kaudi plaster. The paint generally consists of pigments and binding material that occurs in water soluble as well as water resistant condition and is applied to wet (fresco) and dry (secco) plaster. The secco parts seem to be done in tempera technique. This also leads to conclusion that the technique had been tempera; however the paints have not been analyzed yet . Another important evidence to trace the technique of wall paintings in Shreenath ji temple is that the painted surface with los't pigment is almost as shiny and smooth as the plaster itself, which mean the paintings had been made only after the plastered surface was finished. A detailed analysis of painting tells that perhaps there was no provision of preliminary sketch or drawing for the design part of composition, while the figures were firstly drawn and then coloured. Analysis by conservation team proves that the walls of Shreenath ji temple room were formely layered with kaudi plaster which can be found in fragments on walls underneath the actual lime plaster.

    But it is not known by today whether entire plaster surface was painted or only parts of it because too little is left. Most of the rooms on second floor had been lavishly painted at some point of time. The remains of paintings are combined with mirror work. The paintings conserved and recovered out of the over paint and plaster are quire well in condition to be visible in contrast to punting on the door panel of Shreenath ji temple. This is a vague impression of an image of Radha- Krishna. It is still under an over painted layer and may be from an earlier period than paintings of the same room.

    Paintings in Other towns of Marwar

    The Jodhpur style was followed in the Thikanas of Pali, Ghanerao and Pokhran. In town like Kuchawan, Nagaur and Jalore, Rathore nobles also encouraged painting after buildinf Galleries.


    Bhinmal was an important cultural and religious centre of medieval Marwar and enjoyed peace and prosperity for long. Kanhaddeo Prabandh, a trxt composed in V. S. 1512 (1455 AD), speaks highly about the scholerly activities and learned men of this town. 
    A copy of Kalpasutra of V.S. 1563 (A.D. 1506) in the collection of Rajasthan Oriental Research Institute (RORI), Jodhpur, is a remarkable contribution of Bhinmal. The colophon in the end reads that Lola Sravak and his family, inspired by the preaching of Bhanumeru, got this copy made for the use of Vivekshekhar, a giver of religious recitations. It has 136 folios and 36 illustrations. Long paper folios have seven lines on each and on 36 scenes from the life of tirathankars are painted in slightly elongated panels. As the Kalpasutra mentions acts of only four tirathankaras, the other twenty are shown in two miniatures (nos. 27 and 28)— ten seated in each. Gold, red and blue dominate the palette and black touches make each more show a good number of decorative motifs. Clothing also demonstrates medieval pat¬terns— geese, rosettes, etc., found especially on printed fabrics from Gujarat.  


    The most remarkable and the earliest dated example, known to us so far, from Pali is a Ragamala series in the Collection of Kunwar Sangram Singh, Jaipur. It was executed by Virji in 1623 during the reign of Vitthal Das. It is a simple but attractive set. While describing this series, Douglas Barrett observed, "These simple but by no means artless drawings are set down without fumbling. There is no sign of an uneasy shifting to taste. It is difficult to be¬lieve that they were not following a tradition current in the sixteenth century in the desert region. Nor does this Ragamala stand alone; a manuscript in the Motichand Khajanchi collection in the same style is dated 1634.  Though folkish in nature it is a well done work, for exam¬ple musical instrument is carefully drawn and shows the artist's command over lines. It seems that the art of painting flourished at Pali and the neighbouring areas in late 16th and early 17th. Authors of the Khajanchi Collection Catalogue labeled one painting- "lady and a boy" in their work "probably Marwar, "Now the question arises what were the reasons behind this nomenclatures?

    A plausible explanation would be- the stylistic similarities- the male face with wide open eyes and forearms full of bangles are close to Pali Ragamala of 1623 and colours are bright. Six folios from another Ragamala series, very similar to Pali set is in the Coll-ection of M.S. Man Singh II Museum. The RORI Jodhpur has some manuscripts from Pali. Two of them have dates - V.S. 1845 (A.D. 1788) and V.S. 1853 (A.D. 1796). These works were produced for the elite of the town and are not royal copies. Though the calligraphy is good, illustrations are not of high quality. They have characteristic coarse colours of that period and lines are carelessly drawn. Human figures are short and static; they give toy-like effect. Trees are highly decorative but as book illustrations they are good. Artists seem more successful in drawing birds and animals, & in depicting social customs and manners of that period.


    Nagaur was also an active centre, where a number of Jain and Hindu illustrated texts were executed. Bhakat Singh (1724-49 A.D.) was independent ruler of Nagaur. He executed some wall paintings in the buildings like Hawa Mahal, Badal Mahal and Shish Mahal at the Nagaur Fort. Both in quality and quantity in atelier of the Maharaja, soon a sub school of Marwar mural sprang up. These paintings reveal that the Maharaja got them painted under the influence of Vaishnava Cult. By painting Shri Krishna and Radha the Maharaja actually took immense delight in seeing women in the different poses and theme of so called Vaishnava cult. 

    हमारी नई वैबसाइट - भारत का इतिहास -

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  • राजकीय कार्यालयों में नैतिकता एवं शिष्टाचार

    राजकीय कार्यालयों में नैतिकता एवं शिष्टाचार

    राजकीय कार्यालयों में नैतिकता एवं शिष्टाचार

    हमारी नई वैबसाइट - भारत का इतिहास -

    इस आलेख में निम्नलिखित प्रश्नों का उत्तर जानने का प्रयास किया गया है-

    1. नैतिकता क्या है?

    2. शिष्टाचार क्या है?

    3. नैतिकता और शिष्टाचार में क्या अंतर है?

    4. कार्यालय में नैतिकता क्या है?

    5. क्या भारतीय सरकारी कार्यालयों में नैतिकता देखने को मिलती है?

    6. कार्यालय में शिष्टाचार क्या है?

    7. क्या भारतीय सरकारी कार्यालयों में शिष्टाचार देखने को मिलता है?

    8. क्या हमने कभी अपने मन से सवाल किए हैं कि हम अपने कार्यालय में नैतिकता और शिष्टाचार का वातावरण बनाएं?

    9. भारत के सरकारी कार्यालयों में शिष्टाचार एवं नैतिकता की समस्या क्यों है?

    10. कार्यालयों में नैतिकता नहीं होने के क्या दुष्परिणाम हो सकते हैं? 1

    1. भारतीय सरकारी कर्मचारी ऐसे क्यों हैं?

    12. कृपया अब बताएं कि आपकी अपने बारे में क्या धारणा है- (अ.) क्या आप शिष्ट हैं, (ब.) क्या आप नैतिक हैं?

    1. नैतिकता क्या है?

    ʘ सामान्यतः मानव जीवन के शाश्वत मूल्य ही, नैतिकता हैं। ये हर देश में, हर काल में और हर व्यक्ति के लिए लगभग एक से रहते हैं!

    ʘ यहाँ लगभग शब्द का प्रयोग किया गया है, तो क्या ये बदलते भी हैं?

    ʘ सदा सत्य बोलो, दूसरे के धन का अपहरण मत करो, भूखे को भोजन दो, किसी का दिल मत दुखाओ........ ये सब नैतिक मूल्य हैं। हर युग में एक से रहते हैं, कभी नहीं बदलते।

    ʘ कुछ नैतिक मूल्य ऐसे भी होते हैं जो देश, काल और पात्र के साथ बदल सकते हैं जैसे राष्ट्र-प्रेम। उदाहरण के लिए कोई व्यक्ति अपना देश छोड़कर किसी दूसरे देश की नागरिकता प्राप्त करता है। यहाँ राष्ट्र-प्रेम, शाश्वत नैतिक मूल्य होते हुए भी अपने अर्थ बदल लेता है। मान लीजिए कि किसी समय उन दोनों देशों में युद्ध होता है, तो वह व्यक्ति किस राष्ट्र के विजय की कामना करेगा! निःसंदेह यह उन परिस्थितियों पर निर्भर करेगा, जिनके कारण उसने पुराने राष्ट्र का त्यागकर नए राष्ट्र की नागरिकता ली थी। उदाहरण के लिए हम सानिया मिर्जा और अदनान सामी के नामों पर विचार करें, इनके मन में राष्ट्र-प्रेम की क्या परिभाषा होती होगी !

    ʘ जब मानवता और राष्ट्र दोनों में से एक चुनना हो तो मानवता का चयन ही नैतिकता है। जब राष्ट्र और अपने परिवार में से एक का चयन करना हो तो राष्ट्र का चयन नैतिकता है। हालांकि इस पर बहस हो सकती है। एक सैनिक को शत्रु राष्ट्र पर परमाणु बम डालने के लिए दिया जाए तो वह अवश्य सोचेगा कि यहां नैतिकता क्या है?

    ʘ यही कारण है कि देश, काल और पात्र के साथ नैतिकता बदल सकती है।

    2. क्या लोग वास्तव में नैतिक हैं?

    ʘ हम सब जानते हैं कि विश्व में समस्त प्राणी अपनी संतान से अथाह प्रेम करते हैं। बंदरिया अपने बच्चे को तब तक छाती से चिपकाए रहती है या पीठ पर लादे रहती है जब तक कि वह स्वयं अपनी रक्षा करने में सक्षम नहीं हो जाता। यदि किसी बंदरिया को उसके बच्चे सहित पानी के हौद में डाला जाए तो वह बच्चे को अपनी पीठ पर चढ़ा लेगी ताकि बच्चा पानी में न डूब जाए। अब यदि हौद में पानी का स्तर बढ़या जाए तो बंदरिया बच्चे को अपने सिर रख रखकर खड़ी हो जाएगी। यदि पानी का स्तर बंदरिया की नाक की ऊंचाई तक बढ़ाया जाए तो बंदरिया उस बच्चे को हौद में रखकर स्वयं उस पर खड़ी हो जाएगी और अपने प्राण बचाने का प्रयास करेगी। संसार में अधिकतर लोगों में नैतिकता का सम्बन्ध बंदरिया और उसके बच्चे के जैसा है।

    ʘ संसार में सबकी नैतिकता बंदरिया जैसी नहीं है। इसीलिए संसार में नैतिकता सदैव जीवित रहती है। यही आदमी की अंतरआत्मा का दरवाजा खटखटाती है और उसे सही मार्ग पर लाने के लिए प्रेरित करती है।

    3. शिष्टाचार क्या है?

    ʘ मनुष्य का वह समस्त आचरण जो कुछ भी मर्यादा में हो, जिसके कारण दूसरों को परेशानी का अनुभव न हो, जिससे वातावरण अच्छा बनता हो, शिष्टाचार कहलाता है। इसमें मनुष्य के चलने, उठने, बोलने, भोजन करने, कुल्ला करने, शयन करने के ढंग से लेकर दूसरों का अभिवादन करने, उनके साथ लेन-देन करने का ढंग सम्मिलित होता है।

    4. नैतिकता और शिष्टाचार में क्या अंतर है?

    ʘ नैतिकता और शिष्टाचार में काफी अंतर है जिसे ठीक-ठीक अनुभव करते हुए भी शब्दों में या परिभाषा में बांध पाना कठिन है।

    ʘ मोटे तौर पर कहा जा सकता है कि नैतिकता और शिष्टाचार में परिमाण अर्थात् मात्रा का अंतर है। जिस बात का प्रभाव ज्यादा मात्रा में होता है, वह सामान्यतः नैतिकता का मामला होती है और जिस बात का प्रभाव कम मात्रा में होता है वह नैतिकता न रहकर शिष्टाचार बन जाती है।

    ʘ आप अपना काम करवाने के लिए किसी को रिश्वत देते हैं तो यह नैतिकता का मामला है और आप अपना काम करवाने के लिए किसी को धन्यवाद देते हैं, यह शिष्टाचार का मामला है।

    ʘ यदि कोई अध्यापक किसी छात्र को ट्यूशन पढ़ने के लिए दबाव बनाने हेतु गाली-गलौच करता है तो यह नैतिकता का मामला है और यदि छात्र के उज्जवल भविष्य की कामना से उसे कटु शब्द कहता है तो यह शिष्टाचार का मामला है।

    ʘ यदि कोई चपरासी आपके कार्यालय का डोक्यूमेंट किसी अन्य व्यक्ति को किसी लालच में अवैधानिक रूप से देने के लिए दौड़भाग करता है तो यह नैतिकता का मामला है। और यदि वही डोक्यूमेंट वैधानिक रूप से देने के लिए यह सोचकर दौड़भाग करता है कि किसी व्यक्ति को दुबारा चक्कर नहीं लगाना पड़े तो यह शिष्टाचार का मामला है।

    ʘ ऑफिस में शराब पीना नैतिकता का मामला है जबकि सिगरेट पीना कुछ सालों पहले तक शिष्टाचार का मामला था, अब यह कानूनी मामला है।

    ʘ किसी व्यक्ति से सेवा लेकर उसे धन्यवाद नहीं देना शिष्टाचार का मामला है न कि नैतिकता का।

    5. कार्यालय में नैतिकता क्या है?

    ʘ समय पर आना नैतिकता है न कि शिष्टाचार।

    ʘ अपना निर्धारित काम समय पर पूरा करना नैतिकता है न कि शिष्टाचार।

    ʘ काम के बदले पुरस्कार, रिश्वत, टिप, कमीशन आदि की मांग करना नैतिकता है न कि शिष्टाचार।

    ʘ किए जा रहे काम के वास्तविक लक्ष्यों को प्राप्त करना नैतिकता है न कि शिष्टाचार।

    ʘ कार्यालय की स्टेशनरी/फर्नीचर/अन्य सामग्री घर नहीं ले जाना नैतिकता है न कि शिष्टाचार।

    ʘ महिला सहकर्मी के साथ फ्लर्ट की कोशिश करना अनैतिकता है जबकि उसके कपड़ों की सामाान्य प्रशंसा करना शिष्टाचार का उल्लंधन है।

    6. क्या भारतीय सरकारी कार्यालयों में नैतिकता देखने को मिलती है?

    ʘ पब्लिक डीलिंग वाले भारतीय सरकारी कार्यालयों में नैतिकता के पालन की स्थिति क्या है, इस पर अधिक बोलने की आवश्यकता नहीं है!

    ʘ आप में से कितने लोग हैं जो बिना जान पहचान के भी आरटीओ ऑफिस में अपना ड्राइविंग लाइसेंस बनवा सकते हैं या रिन्यू करवा सकते हैं!

    ʘ कितने लोग भूमि क्रय करने के लिए सरकार द्वारा निर्धारित फार्म स्वयं भरकर बिना वकील या दलाल के, भूमि का पंजीयन करवा सकते हैं?

    ʘ क्या आप सरकारी अस्पताल में जाकर डॉक्टर को दिखाकर संतुष्ट हो पाते हैं। आपमें से कितने लोग हैं जिसने आज तक किसी सरकारी डॉक्टर के घर जाकर और फीस देकर अपना इलाज नहीं करवाया?

    ʘ क्या आप किसी भारतीय मंत्री या अधिकारी के कार्यालय में जाकर यह सही सही जान सकते हैं कि मंत्री या अधिकारी वास्तव में किस दिन और किस समय अपने ऑफिस में मिलेंगे!

    ʘ आपमें कितने लोग हैं जिन्होंने अपना पासपोर्ट बनवाने के लिए पुलिस कर्मचारी को रुपए दिए या नहीं दिए!

    ʘ नौकरी के लिए पुलिस वैरीफिकेशन के लिए कितने लोगों ने पैसे दिए या नहीं दिए?

    ʘ रेलवे स्टेशन पर कुली कितने पैसे लेता है, कितने निर्धारित हैं, पहले स्टेशनों पर लिखा रहता था, क्या अब किसी ने लिखा हुआ देखा है?

    ʘ प्राइवेट स्कूटर स्टैण्ड पर नगर निगम या रेलवे या रोडवेज द्वारा कार, स्कूटर के लिए कितना शुल्क निर्धारित होता है, वह कितना लेता है?

    ʘ ये सब सरकारी कार्यालयों की नैतिकता के उल्लंघन के मामले हैं।

    7. कार्यालय में शिष्टाचार क्या है?

    ʘ राजस्थान सरकार ने कोड ऑफ कण्डक्ट बना रखा है जिसका पालन प्रत्येक अधिकारी एवं कर्मचारी को करना होता है इसमें नैतिकता और शिष्टाचार सम्बन्धी आचरण ही निर्धारित किए गए हैं।

    ʘ कार्यालय के बाहर एवं प्रत्येक कक्ष के बाहर, अधिकारी एवं कर्मचारी की टेबल पर उसका नाम, पदनाम लिखा हुआ होना चाहिए।

    ʘ यदि अधिकारी या कर्मचारी के लिए वर्दी निर्धारित है तो वर्दी पर भी नेमप्लेट होनी चाहिए।

    ʘ कार्यालय के बाहर लिखें कि यह कितने बजे खुलता है और कितने बजे बंद होता है।

    ʘ कार्यालय के बाहर लिखें कि यहां जनता से सम्बन्धित कौनसे कार्य होते हैं।

    ʘ कार्यालय के बाहर लिखें कि जनता अपने किस कार्य के लिए किस अधिकारी या कर्मचारी से मिले।

    ʘ कार्यालय के बाहर लिखें कि यदि आप इस कार्यालय के किसी अधिकारी या कर्मचारी से असंतुष्ट हैं तो आपको किससे सम्पर्क करना चाहिये और किस समय?

    ʘ कार्यालय के बाहर सूचना के अधिकार के तहत चस्पा की जाने वाली सूचनाएं लिखें।

    ʘ कार्यालय के बाहर लिखें कि इस कार्यालय में कितने अधिकारी और कर्मचारी काम करते हैं, उनमें से आज कितने और कौन-कौन अवकाश पर है।

    ʘ जन सामान्य के लिए छाया, पेयजल एवं बैठने की समुचित व्यवस्था करें।

    ʘ ऑफिस भीतर एवं बाहर से साफ-सुथरा हो। बाथरूम रोज धुलें। उनमें पानी हो।

    ʘ ऑफिस समय पर पहुंचना जरूरी क्यों? कुछ पुराने बाबू कुर्सी पर कोट टांगकर या मेज पर चश्मा रखकर चले जाते थे। ऐसा न करें।

    ʘ ऑफिस में टेलिफोन और सैलफोन का प्रयोग कब, कितना, कैसे करें। घर के टेलिफोन ऑफिस में नहीं निबटाएं।

    ʘ टेलिफोन उठाते ही अपने कार्यालय या संस्था का नाम बताएं।

    ʘ यदि सामने वाला पूछे कि आप कौन बोल रहे हैं तो अपना नाम एवं पदनाम बताएं। अपना नाम बताने में शर्म क्यों आती है? बड़े-बड़े अधिकारी अपना नाम बताते हैं।

    ʘ मैं आपकी क्या सेवा/सहायता कर सकता हूं, जैसे शब्द बोलें। मशीन की तरह नहीं, इंसान की तरह।

    ʘ ईमेल देखते रहने की आदत डालें। पर्सनल नहीं, ऑफिशियल।

    ʘ ऑफिस आवर्स में सोशियल वैबसाइट्स फेसबुक, ट्विटर, लिंक्डइन आदि का व्यक्तिगत प्रयोग न करें। इससे काम से ध्यान हटता है।

    ʘ कार्यालयों में पार्टियों का आयोजन कैसे करें। लंच को सामूहिक भोज एवं सरकारी समय की बर्बादी का जरिया न बनाएं।

    ʘ साथी अधिकारियों एवं कर्मचारियों की आलोचना एवं निंदा से बचें। अन्यथा आप भी इसका शिकार हो जाएंगे। वातावरण दूषित होगा। लोगों की कार्यक्षमता घटेगी।

    ʘ पॉलिटिक्स, क्रिकेट, फिल्म आदि को लेकर डिस्कशन्स न करें।

    ʘ अपने कुत्ते को ऑफिस में न लाएं।

    ʘ अपने छोटे बच्चों को ऑफिस में न लाएं। क्रैच या डे बोर्डिंग स्कूल में डालें।

    ʘ उपहार लेने सम्बन्धी निर्देशों का पालन करें।

    ʘ अपने कर्मचारियों अथवा जनता से बात करते समय अपने पद को अपनी वाणी पर हावी नहीं रखें।

    ʘ अधीनस्थ कर्मचारी को गलती करते ही टोकें। अन्यथा यह आदत बन जाएगी।

    ʘ किसी भी वरिष्ठ अधिकारी, साथी अथवा अधीनस्थ को अनावश्यक उपदेश नहीं दें।

    ʘ अपने आचरण से दूसरों को प्रेरित करने का प्रयास करें। (प्रधानमंत्री श्री नरेन्द्र मोदी द्वारा पुस्तक के विमोचन के बाद रैपर को जेब में रख लेने का उदाहरण)

    ʘ अपने कार्य, दायित्व, अधिकार, नियम, सरकारी गतिविधियों, योजनाओं, सरकार में हो रहे परिवर्तनों की जानकारी रखें।

    ʘ किसी दूसरे कर्मचारी का टिफन न खाएं।

    ʘ कार्यालय के किसी भी व्यक्ति से पैसे उधार नहीं मांगें न किसी को दें।

    ʘ कार्यालय में शराब, सिगरेट, गुटखा, अफीम, भांग का प्रयोग न तो स्वयं करें, न किसी अन्य को करने दें।

    ʘ आपकी हेयर स्टाइल, कपड़े बटन बंद करने का ढंग, जूते-मोजों का रंग, सैलफोन का कवर, मोबाइल की रिंग टोन/एसएमएस टोन, आपके पैन का रंग भी आपके शिष्ट होने अथवा न होने की घोषणा करते हैं। ये आपके व्यक्त्वि की चुगली करते हैं।

    ʘ आपका ईमेल एड्रेस आपके शिष्ट होने की पहचान हो सकता है।

    8. क्या भारतीय सरकारी कार्यालयों में शिष्टाचार देखने को मिलता है?

    9. क्या हमने कभी अपने मन से सवाल किए हैं कि हम अपने कार्यालय में नैतिकता और शिष्टाचार का वातावरण बनाएं?

    10. भारत के सरकारी कार्यालयों में शिष्टाचार एवं नैतिकता की समस्या क्यों है?

    ʘ भारत एक सॉफ्ट स्टेट है। यहां कानून उतने कड़े नहीं हैं जितने कि अन्य देशों में हैं।

    ʘ हालांकि रिश्वत खाते हुए पाए जाने पर या वित्तीय कदाचार का दोषी पाए जाने पर अनेक टॉप लेवल ब्यूरोक्रेट्स, पॉलिटीशियन, पुलिस अधिकारी और मिलिट्री जनरल भी जेलों में बैठे हैं। मुख्यमंत्री भी जेलों में बंद हैं।

    ʘ फिर भी भ्रष्टाचार और कदाचार की बीमारी घटने की बजाय बढ़ रही है तो उसके पीछे कौनसा बड़ा कारण है?

    ʘ लोगों में नैतिक शिक्षा का अभाव है। रामायण, महाभारत की कथाएं घरों और स्कूलों में सुनाई जाती थीं। आज कौन सुनाता है!

    ʘ पहले लोग भगवान से डरते थे, अब भगवान का डर मंदिर में जाकर प्रसाद चढ़ाने तक सीमित होकर रह गया है। लोग सोचते थे कि यदि दूसरे का धन हड़पेंगे तो अगले जनम में चुकाना पड़ेगा। अब पण्डित से वास्तु-शांति करवाकर समस्त सुख प्राप्त करने की प्रवृत्ति हो गई है।

    ʘ हजारों साल तक विदेशी आक्रमणों को झेलते रहने, ब्रिटिश काल में भारतीयों की सम्पत्ति का अपहरण किए जाने से भारत में गरीबी की सुरंगें बहुत गहरी हो गई हैं।

    ʘ गरीबी के कारण लोगों की मानसिकता में स्थाई परिवर्तन आ गए हैं। अब यहां गरीबी एक आदत बन चुकी है। लोगों को कितना भी पैसा मिल जाए, उन्हें यही लगता है कि उन्हें और पैसे की आवश्यकता है। इसके लिए वे नैतिकता का उल्लंघन करते हैं। जब कार्यालय में कुछ लोग अनैतिक रास्तों से पैसा कमाते हैं तो बाकी के लोग शिष्टाचार का उल्लंघन करते हुए अनुशासनहीनता का रास्ता पकड़ लेते हैं।

    ʘ लातूर में आए भूकम्प के लिए दुनिया भर से सहायता सामग्री आई। यह सामग्री वरिष्ठ अफसरों की निगरानी में बांटी जा रही थी। कुछ दिनों बाद मीडिया की हैडलाइन इस प्रकार थीं- राहत सामग्री बांटने वालों ने ही पहनी, विदेशी पैंण्टें।

    ʘ इस तरह की घटनाओं से जनता में भ्रष्टाचार के प्रति स्वीकृति बढ़ती है। सिस्टम पर से विश्वास घटता है।

    11. कार्यालयों में नैतिकता नहीं होने के क्या दुष्परिणाम हो सकते हैं?

    ʘ स्वीडिश अर्थशास्त्री गनर माइर्डल ने अपनी पुस्तक एशियन ड्रामा में सॉफ्ट स्टेट की परिभाषा दी है कि उन दक्षिण एशियाई देशों को सॉफ्ट स्टेट कहते हैं जहां सरकारी कर्मचारी अनुशासनहीनता का आचरण करते हैं जिसके कारण समाज में अपराध पनपते हैं। यहां सरकारी कर्मचारी से आशय टॉप ब्यूरोक्रेट्स, मध्यम स्तर के अधिकारी, कर्मचारी, पार्षद, पंच-सरपंच तथा एमएलए, एमपी, मंत्री आदि उन सब लोगों से है जिन पर जनता का काम करने की जिम्मेदारी है और जो किसी भी सेवा के बदले सरकार से वेतन लेते हैं अर्थात् ठेकेदार, सप्लायर और अनुबंध पर लगे कर्मचारी भी। गनर द्वारा प्रस्तुत इस परिभाषा के अनुसार भारत निश्चित ही सॉफ्ट स्टेट है।

    ʘ शिक्षा, चिकित्सा, सड़क, बिजली, पानी जैसे पब्लिक यूटिलिटी विभागों से लेकर पुलिस, प्रशासन और न्याय से जुड़े विभिन्न विभागों तक में भारतीय कर्मचारियों में हर स्तर पर अनुशासनहीनता और भ्रष्टाचार व्याप्त है। जनता अपने न्यायोचित कामों के लिए तरसती रहती है जिनके न होने पर और समाज में रिश्वत, मारपीट, हत्या, बलात्कार तथा लूट जैसे अपराध पनपते हैं। ʘ सरकारी विभागों के कर्मचारियों द्वारा समय पर काम न करने, ढंग से काम न करने, काम से बचने के बहाने ढूंढने तथा छोटे-छोटे कामों के लिये जनता से रिश्वत की मांग करने आदि प्रवृत्तियों के कारण अपराधियों के हौंसले हर समय बुलंद रहते हैं तथा देश में अपराध का ग्राफ काफी ऊंचा बना रहता है।

    ʘ कर्मचारियों में नैतिकता का अभाव होने के कारण आपराधिक अनुसंधान समय पर पूरे न होते, उनके वांछित परिणाम नहीं आते, गवाह मुकरते हैं तथा न्यायालयों में मुकदमों के निर्णय होने में लम्बा समय लगता है इस कारण अपराधियों के हौंसले कभी पस्त नहीं पड़ते।

    ʘ 1960 के दशक से ही भारत में हत्याओं का आंकड़ा बहुत ऊंचा बना हुआ है। वर्ष 2007-08 में भारत विश्व का सर्वाधिक हत्याओं वाला देश बन गया। उस वर्ष भारत में पाकिस्तान की तुलना में तीन गुनी और अमरीका की तुलना में दो गुनी मानव हत्याएं हुई थीं। उस वर्ष देश में 50 लाख अपराध दर्ज हुए थे जिनमें से 32,719 मामले मानव हत्याओं के थे।

    ʘ वर्ष 2014 में भारत में 33,981 हत्याएं रिपोर्ट हुईं जिनमें से 3,332 व्यक्ति घर में ही हत्या के शिकार हुए। असंतोष, अत्याचार और झगड़ों के कारण भारत में प्रतिवर्ष लगभग 1 लाख 35 हजार लोग आत्महत्या करते हैं। इनमें से विवाह, दहेज, विवाह पूर्व प्रेम सम्बन्ध, विवाहेतर प्रेम सम्बन्ध, तलाक एवं पारिवारिक विवादों को लेकर सर्वाधिक आत्महत्याएं होती हैं।

    ʘ भारत में हिंसा के कुल मामलों में से एक तिहाई अपराध घरेलू हिंसा के होते हैं, जिनमें से एक चौथाई मामले 15 से 49 साल की महिलाओं के प्रति घर के ही निकट रिश्तेदारों द्वारा किए जाने वाले यौन शोषण के होते हैं। भारत में होने वाले अपराधों में चौथा नम्बर महिलाओं और बच्चों के साथ होने वाले बलात्कार का है। वर्ष 2012 में भारत में बलात्कार के लगभग 25 हजार मामले रिपोर्ट हुए जिनमें से 98 प्रतिशत मामलों में पीड़ित महिला के साथ उसके किसी परिचित ने ही बलात्कार किया।

    ʘ भारत में प्रत्येक एक लाख बच्चों में से 7,200 बच्चों के साथ बलात्कार होता है। यह आंकड़ा काफी ऊंचा है। वर्ष 2014-15 में हुए एक अध्ययन के अनुसार भारत में बलात्कार के केवल 5-6 प्रतिशत मामले ही रिपोर्ट किए जाते हैं।

    ʘ बलात्कार के अधिकांश मामले सामाजिक प्रवंचना एवं पुलिस के दुर्व्यवहार के कारण महिलाओं एवं बच्चों द्वारा रिपोर्ट ही नहीं किए जाते। फिर भी भारत में बच्चों के विरुद्ध होने वाले लगभग एक लाख अपराध हर वर्ष पुलिस थानों में दर्ज होते हैं। महिलाओं के विरुद्ध होने वाले साढ़े तीन लाख अपराध लगभग हर साल पुलिस थानों मे रिपोर्ट होते हैं।

    ʘ हरियाणा में दो साल पहले आरक्षण आंदोलन में असामाजिक तत्वों ने महिलाओं के साथ सामूहिक बलात्कार किए। यहां तक कि एक देवर ने अपनी भाभी के साथ सामूहिक बलात्कार की घटना को अंजाम दिया। ऐसा करने की हिम्मत क्यों हुई! क्योंकि उन्हें मालूम है कि पुलिस प्रशासन अपना काम इतने घटिया तरीके से करेंगे कि कोर्ट कचहरी भी उनका कुछ नहीं बिगाड़ सकेंगी।

    ʘ स्थिति इतनी भयावह है कि बहुत से देशों ने अपने नागरिकों को यह एडवाइजरी जारी की हुई है कि भारत में जाते समय वे संभावित बलात्कार से सावधान रहें। यहां तक कि समूह में यात्रा करते समय भी महिलाएं भारत में बलात्कार की शिकार हो सकती हैं इसलिये एकांत स्थानों पर तथा रात्रि में सार्वजनिक वाहनों से यात्रा न करें तथा भारतीयों की तरह कपड़े पहनें।

    ʘ उन्होंने यह सलाह नहीं दी कि संकट में पड़ने पर भारत की इन एजेंसियों से सम्पर्क करें। उन देशों का भारतीय एजेंसियों पर वैसा विश्वास ही नहीं है।

    ʘ समाज में असंतोष, अलगाव, उपद्रव, आंदोलन, असमानता, असामंजस्य, अराजकता, आदर्श विहीनता, अन्याय, अत्याचार, अपमान, असफलता अवसाद, अस्थिरता, अनिश्चितता, संघर्ष, हिंसा उस समाज में अधिक होते हैं जहां सरकारी कर्मचारी लोगों का काम नहीं करते। उनके साथ बुरा व्यवहार करते हैं। उन्हें सही सलाह नहीं देते।

    ʘ व्यक्ति में एवं समाज में साम्प्रदायिकता, जातीयता, भाषावाद, क्षेत्रवाद, हिंसा की संकीर्ण कुत्सित भावनाओं व समस्याओं के मूल में उत्तरदायी कारण हमारे भीतर नैतिक और चारित्रिक पतन अर्थात नैतिक मूल्यों का क्षय एवं अवमूल्यन है।

    ʘ देश की सबसे बड़ी शैक्षिक संस्था-राष्ट्रीय शैक्षिक अनुसंधान एवं प्रशिक्षण परिषद के द्वारा उन मूल्यों की एक सूची तैयार की गयी है जो व्यक्ति में नैतिक मूल्यों के परिचायक हो सकते हैं. इस सूची में 84 मूल्यों को सम्मिलित किया गया है.

    12. भारतीय सरकारी कर्मचारी ऐसे क्यों हैं?

    ʘ हिन्दुस्तान टाइम्स तथा सी-4 नामक संस्था द्वारा कुछ वर्ष पहले करवाए गए एक सर्वेक्षण में पाया गया कि भारत में 52 प्रतिशत लोग अपने काम से संतुष्ट नहीं हैं। उनमें नया चैलेंज स्वीकार करने के प्रति कभी उत्साह नहीं होता। ऐसे लोग अपनी नौकरी बचाए रखने के लिए कार्य करते हैं तथा उनके द्वारा किए गए काम के परिणाम औसत से नीचे होते हैं।

    ʘ भारत में 29 प्रतिशत कर्मचारी, काम से बचने के लिए कार्यालय में अपना और दूसरों का समय नष्ट करते हैं। ऐसे लोग दण्ड या प्रताड़ना या वेतन कटौती का खतरा उत्पन्न होने पर मजबूरी में ही काम करने को तैयार होते हैं तथा उनके द्वारा किए गए काम के परिणाम देश की प्रगति को अवरुद्ध करते हैं और जनता के मूलभूत अधिकारों पर बुरा असर डालते हैं।

    ʘ वर्ष 2011-12 में अमरीका एवं कनाडा में टॉवर्स वेस्टन एवं नेशनल बिजनिस गु्रप द्वारा एक शोध में पाया गया कि कर्मचारियों में उत्साह एवं प्रसन्नता तथा उनके द्वारा किए गए कार्यों के परिणामों में सीधा सम्बन्ध होता है। इसलिए वहां 66 प्रतिशत कम्पनियां अपने कर्मचारियों के उत्साहवर्द्धन के कार्यक्रम चलाती हैं।

    ʘ वर्ष 2012 में कॉन्टीनेंटल यूरोप एथिक्स एट वर्क नामक अध्ययन में यह पाया गया कि 77 प्रतिशत कर्मचारियों ने उन कम्पनियों को चुनने का प्रयास किया जो नैतिक संस्कृति के सकारात्मक मानकों के लिए जानी जाती हैं न कि अधिक वेतन देने के लिए। क्योंकि नैतिक संस्कृति वाली कम्पनियों में उन्हें अपना भविष्य अधिक सुरक्षित लगता है।

    ʘ इन कम्पनियों के कर्मचारी अपने साथियों को सुरक्षात्मक कवर देते हुए पाए गए, अर्थात् वे अपने कमजोर साथी को ज्ञान, दक्षता, सूचना आदि देकर मजबूत बनाने का प्रयास करते हैं तथा उसका काम पूरा हो सके इसके लिए भरपूर सहायता करते हैं। यहां तक कि उसकी अनुपस्थिति में कम्पनी को नुक्सान नहीं हो, इसके लिए वे उसका काम भी करते हैं।

    ʘ क्या भारत के कर्मचारी भी ऐसा करते हैं ?

    ʘ हां करते हैं लेकिन तभी जब वह उसकी जाति, उसके क्षेत्र या उसके रिश्ते वाला हो।

    ʘ भारतीय सरकारी कर्मचारियों के बारे में कहा जाता है कि वे अपनी क्षमता का उच्चतम पदर्शन केवल नौकरी प्राप्त करते समय करते हैं। उसके बाद तो जैसे-जैसे समय बीत जाता है, वे अपनी क्षमता का प्रदर्शन बिना काम किए अपनी नौकरी बचाए रखने में करते दिखाई देते हैं।

    13. कृपया अब बताएं कि आपकी अपने बारे में क्या धारणा है ?

    ʘ (अ.) क्या आप शिष्ट हैं,

    ʘ (ब.) क्या आप नैतिक हैं? -डॉ. मोहनलाल गुप्ता,

    हमारी नई वैबसाइट - भारत का इतिहास -

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  • How Did Pakistan Emerge-1

    How Did Pakistan Emerge-1

    First and last wish- Vindication of peace

    हमारी नई वैबसाइट - भारत का इतिहास -

    India is several millennia old country, which is built upon rich cultural boundaries rather than nature’s boundaries. Its border is set upon an area where Vedas are resonated, and Gods are worshiped. People, living across the western border of India, used to worship demons and study ahurmjda. In the legendary era, wherever the tales of Ramayana and Mahabharata reached, there the regimes of Indian princes were eternalized. After that, those countries adopted the Indian culture.

    During the time of Alexander the Great’s invasion on India, in 326 B.C (2337 years ago) India’s border used to extend from Hind-Kush Mountains in the west to Burma’s border in the east. Persia (currently known as Iran) or Faras was the neighboring country in west.

    In 624 B.C., Lord Buddha was born. He preached the message of peace to the whole world. These messages were spread to the countries such as China, Tibet in the north; Burma, Thailand, Java, Sumatra, Bali, Borneo, Indonesia, Somali, etc. in the east and Sri-Lanka in the south; while it was limited to the west side of the Hindu-Kush Mountains. Wherever the teachings of the Lord Buddha spread, there the Indian culture flourished. In this view, India is a home to diverse and rich culture.

    Currently, seven countries are located in the area from Iran to Burma, which is Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Bhutan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar, while Tibet has been overlapped into China. Sri-Lanka was once part of India.

    Till Aurangzeb’s reign, Afghanistan was a part of India but separated from India long before the British Empire emerged as an imperial power in Indian political firmament. Buddhist monks embellished caves and carved statues of Lord Buddha in Afghanistan, which are still stood and preserved, were destroyed with heavy artilleries by Taliban militants a few decades ago. Today also, the native Afghans speak Hindi language.

    Burma and Sri Lanka were separated from India during the British regime, but Pakistan and Bangladesh were separated the day when the Britishers had to leave India. This separation of Pakistan and Bangladesh from India in two different fragments of the same country, of which one was called as East Pakistan, and the other, as West Pakistan. Later, these fragments fought among themselves and emerged as two separate nations.

    In human history, separation of Pakistan from India is one of the brutal and bloody events. Many other countries of the world have also faced these horrific tragedies. However, whatever happened at the time of separation of Pakistan and India was the result of human psychology that shows on civilization canvas, that humans have always behaved like stubborn kids. As a kid breaks the toy kept in his hand in the anticipation of achieving a new toy, in the same manner, humans put their old achievements on stake, in a hope of new victory. Even after sixty-seven years of separation, our fight is not yet over. We still could not be good neighbors.

    The whole world was watching our farce, and we, to save our citizens from terror attacks kept expecting rationality from Pakistan. Should an act of rationality have been expected from Pakistan that could have helped in establishing a friendly relationship between both the countries! Further, what has India not done to show sensibility towards Pakistan? Despite frequent terror attacks and fake currency coming across the border, India has always extended generous gestures to Pakistan and has maintained a diplomatic relation with it. The foregrounds of Pakistan were laid on fights. The Indian Muslim League was founded in the year 1908 and from then until 1947, it had been fighting for Pakistan and staying with it.

    This book provides a lucid glimpse of these fights. The main motive behind writing this book is to unfold those pages of history, from which lessons can be taken for the future so that puerile things cannot be repeated and we can live peacefully like good neighbors. The first and last wish of every Indian is to establish peace.

    The British India and the Princely India

    In 1858 AD, the British government had formally taken over Indian governance through the East India Company. By then, The East India Company had divided India into two large pieces. The first piece was called as “British India” or “English India,” which was directly governed by the East India Company. The other piece was called as “Indian India” or “Princely India,” which was ruled by the kings. The East India Company ruled the first piece through the Governor General and the second piece through the Viceroy. However, in practice, only one person was in charge for these two posts. The British Parliament did not make any major changes in this practice and it continued beyond 1858 AD.

    Role of Morley-Minto Act in the division of India

    In 1885, the Indian National Congress was founded. Until 1908, it was the mere organization, which was struggling with the country’s political problems. In 1908, the India Muslim League was established in Dhaka. In sober fact, the rise of Muslim League had sowed the seed of division of the country. Soon afterwards, according to Morley-Minto Reforms Act, 1909, separate representations of the Indian Muslims were arranged in the assemblies. However, this arrangement was opposed by the Congress while was encouraged by the Muslim League. Historians have called this system of the Britishers as “divide-and-rule” policy. Noted journalist Durga Das writes that by accepting separate electorate and communal representatives, White Haul had unwittingly sown the seed of division in the country. Ganesh Prasad Barnwal writes that Morley-Minto Reform Act had insured the crop of communalism. We believe that these seeds were not inadvertently sown. These seeds of communalism were already present on the political grounds of India, and these crops fluttered for centuries. Rather, Morley-Minto Act profound the idea to make profits by cropping these seeds of communalism.

    The First Map of Divided India in 1930

    In 1930, the annual session of the Muslim League was held in Allahabad. During this session, Dr. Iqbal, in his presidential address, based on a separate political identity of Muslims, outlined a vision of an independent nation for Muslims or proposed federation of India. Dr. Iqbal’s grandfather was a Kashmiri Brahmin. For centuries, his forebears were living in India peacefully. However, it was not acceptable to Iqbal to settle down in India. He always wanted Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Sindh, and Baluchistan to be integrated into a single homeland for Muslims. After that, the first map of divided India was borne and bred. By that time, the word “Pakistan” was not coined. Therefore, it was called as Muslim India. This political poet Dr. Iqbal had written Saare Jahan Se Acha song. At the time of partition, Iqbal claimed to be the national poet of India, which was rejected by the Congress in the wake of his antics. Later, he trotted to Pakistan, where he wrote down Saare Jahan Se Acha Pakistan Humara. These instances are enough to clarify Iqbal’s pseudo-nationalism. Unfortunately, the song written by Iqbal is still being sung in India today like a national song, while no one ask for him in Pakistan.

    Demand for creation of Sindh as a Muslim- majority state

    Soon afterward the annual session of Muslim League in 1930 AD, first round table conference was organized in London in 1931, in which, representatives of the Muslim League asked for the reservation of seats in a proportion of the population of the Muslim community, in the Indian legislative assemblies. They also demanded that Sindh should be given the status of new Muslim majority province.

    Discovery of the word Pakistan in 1933

    In 1933 AD, one of the students named Rahmat Ali made a proposal which said that Indian Muslims should separate their state from Hindus. Rahmat Ali was studying at a graduate level in England, and he was 40 years old at that time. He said in his proposal that to keep India intact is inurbane and queer. Northwest regions of India – Punjab, Sindh, Kashmir, North-West Frontier Province (Afghan) and Baluchistan, which were largely inhabited by Muslims, should be amalgamated into a new country called Pakistan. His proposal was concluded by the following words: “We will not crucify ourselves upon the cross of Hindu nationalism to make a Hindu-holiday.”

    Indian Muslim students of Cambridge University also supported Rahmat Ali. He issued a pamphlet titled “Now or Never.” This pamphlet constituted: “India is not the name of one single country; nor the home of one single nation. In fact, it is the designation of a State created by the British for the first time in history.” It also gave reasons for the demand of a separate Muslims Federation. It embodied that not only their lifestyle but also their national customs, calendar, food, clothing were fundamentally distinct from the other inhabitants of India.

    Rahmat Ali gave two meanings for the word “Pakistan’’. According to the first meaning, the word “Pakistan” referred to as the holy land. According to the second meaning, the word Pakistan” was composed of the first letters taken from the following states - Punjab, Afghania, Kashmir, and Sindh. Rest of the word was taken from the last part of Baluchistan. Later on, Assam and Bengal from the east; Hyderabad and Malabar from the south were also plotted to be included into Pakistan. This proposal inferred that the entire non-Muslim state would be surrounded by the Muslim country and Muslim pockets in-between Muslim nation would be included as a part of Pakistan.

    “Impossible Dream” by Jinnah

    Larry Collins and Dominique Lapierre writes about Jinnah’s reaction on Rahmat Ali’s proposal that Jinnah, who was going to be credited one day as the Father of Pakistan, had vehemently criticized Rahmat Ali’s proposal by saying Pakistan as an “impossible dream” in 1933. Defacto, staying in London for the whole of his life, Rahmat Ali had always struggled for Pakistan, but Jinnah had never given him importance. Jinnah had a fear that Rahmat Ali might not take away his place.

    Maulana Abul Kalam Azad opposed the word Pakistan

    On opposing the term “Pakistan”, Maulana Abul Kalam issued a statement on 15 April 1946, that “this term goes against my grain” which infers some parts of the world are pure while the others are impure.

    Jinnah- symbol of Hindu-Muslim Unity

    Muhammad Ali Jinnah’s ancestors were Hindu. His family had never followed communalistic tendencies. That is why Muhammad Ali Jinnah was brought up in an English environment. He studied law and in the first decade of the twentieth century, he greatly admired Indian political leader Dadabhai Naroji and entered politics under his assistance.

    He attended the Congress’ twentieth Bombay session in 1904 along with Pherozeshah Mehta. He took the membership of the Congress in 1913. He was an ardent proponent of Hindu-Muslim unity. He had never lost the chance to give a strong speech on this topic. He became the president of Muslim League in 1916. Since he took the membership of Congress and Muslim League together, he landed into controversy. Never-the-less, he was considered as an ambassador of Hindu-Muslim unity. Immediately after the Congress session at Nagpur in 1920, Jinnah bid adieu the Congress and became the member of Muslim League only. Mosley writes that till 1920, he used to propagate through legal means for his ideas to be consented and continued emphasizing on Hindu-Muslim Unity till 1928.

    Mosley also adds that Muhammad Ali Jinnah’s name was adhered with Indian Poetess Sarojini Naidu for few days. She got infatuated with him and used to write him love poems. It is believed that to get rid of her, he moved to London and settled as a successful barrister there. He continued his legal practice in London till 1934.

    The Muslim League brought Jinnah to India

    As soon as Rahmat Ali introduced the concept of the nation called Pakistan; it became enlightened overnight among Muslim youth living in London. As the newspapers around the globe started prompting a fuss over this, Muslim League’s vision got its new wings. He was now looking for a leader, who had not only seen India but also world, who knew the international law, who could communicate with the Britishers in their own language fluently, who was also a renowned barrister like Patel, Nehru, Gandhi and who could snatch a large part of India from Patel, Nehru and Gandhi. For this purpose, Muhammad Ali Jinnah came to his senses. He brought him up from London to India, urging him to leave his profession in 1934. It was happening for the first time in history, that a leader was being imported from London for the country in the offing. In the same year, Jinnah was elected to the central legislative assembly and as the president of All India Muslim League.

    Jinnah- completely tinted in Englishness

    During the short period from 1934 to 1947, Jinnah and Gandhi were considered as political enemies of each other on India’s political sky. Tinted completely in Indian color, Gandhi was like a comet in Indian Politics, who could not be countered by any other whereas Jinnah was colored in a hue of Englishness. Although Gandhi, in comparison to Jinnah, might have remembered more verses in Quran, Jinnah had unrivaled success because he had won the hearts of those Muslims whose traditional language Urdu, he couldn’t even speak properly. His accent was such that once he said Pakisten Jindebed the end of his speech. Some journalists made a meaning of those words as “Pakistan is in bag”, while it meant to be “Pakistan Zindabad.”

    Pakistan Resolution passed in 1940.

    In 1940, another pamphlet titled “Millat –e-Islam and Menace of Indianism” was issued by Rahmat Ali, wherein he implied that Muslims must demand themselves a separate nation. He came with a word “Dinia” out of the manipulation of the letters of the word “India” which meant– subcontinent which was destined to be convertedto Islam. He gave a name “Bang-e-Islam” for the combined terrorities of Bengal and Assam, which meant “Bangush of Islam”. Bangush was the Mughal chieftain of Bengal. He named Bihar as “Faruquistan”, Uttar Pradesh as “Haideristan”, and Rajputana as “Muinistan". He imagined “Moinistan” on the name of Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti. His concept was so successful that in December 1940, Lahore Session of the Muslim League passed the “Pakistan Resolution”, which declared that no constitutional schemes would be acceptable or workable to Muslims unless it has been drawn on following fundamentals: Muslims in Muslim-majority areas, such as North-western parts and North-eastern parts of India should be taken collectively and organized in entirely to eight independent countries, where each unit would be independent and sovereign. K.M. Munshi writes in his book “Pilgrimage to Freedom” that, immediately after this, the leaders of Muslim League had created riots in some places. Riots in Dhaka, Ahmedabad, and Mumbai were very much unpleasant.

    Lord Linlithgow- An opportunist

    Congress was fighting for India’s independence, and their demand was being supported not only in India but also at an international level. There was only one meaning to their demand that the British government should transfer the authority to the Congress and move out. However, at the time of Muslim League’s demand for Pakistan, Viceroy Lord Linlithgow, in August 1940, said in his famous proposal to India that it was clear without retorting that, for India’s peace and prosperity, the British government could not hand over their responsibilities to the government whose dominion had been rejected by a large and important elements in the nation. With the declaration by Viceroy Lord Linlithgow, the Muslim League got the moral boost for their demand of a new nation “Pakistan”.

    Demand for Pakistan in 1941

    In the next annual session of 1941 at Madras, the Muslim League’s demand for Pakistan was presented in a greater zeal. The session also manifested the detailed interpretation of this demand by its President Jinnah. He said, “The aim of All India Muslim League is to establish a completely independent state in the northwest and eastern parts of India with full control over defense, foreign affairs, communications, customs, currency, exchange, etc.” He also added “Under any circumstances, we do not want a complete Indian Constitution with one government at the center. We will never agree to it.”

    Jinnah opposed Quit India Movement

    In 1942, when the Congress initiated Quit India Movement, Jinnah gave speeches in an uncivilized manner against the Congress. When Gandhi made a call in Mumbai that he wanted freedom tonight, then Jinnah urged Muslims to protest against Quit India Movement. To show widespread agitation against Quit India Movement, the Muslim League Press addressed the Congress leaders as gunda, who were fighting with the British government. The British Press had never made such worst statements against the Congress leaders as the Muslim League Press had made.

    Jinnah disliked Nehru

    Larry Collins and Dominique Lapierre write in their book “Freedom at Midnight” that Jinnah had outraged his mind against Jawaharlal Nehru. He never liked Nehru’s interference in the politics. According to Jinnah, Nehru was a person who had worn a guise of western education from outside and cunningness from inside.

    Jinnah’s zero tolerance towards Gandhi

    Larry Collins and Dominique Lapierre have written in their book “Freedom at Midnight” that once Gandhi visited Jinnah’s place for some talk. During the break, he lay down on the precious Persian carpet of Jinnah and laid the soil on his stomach. Jinnah could never forget this scene nor could he forgive. Also, Jinnah was driven out of the public forum of Congress at least two times as Congress members always wanted him to address Gandhi with “Mahatma” while Jinnah used to say “Mr. Gendi”.

    Jinnah and Gandhi’s dispute on Muslim representation

    Both Jinnah and Gandhi had dispute only at one point. Jinnah argued that the Muslim League was the sole institution that could represent Muslims while Gandhi said that the Congress could represent both Hindu and Muslim. In June 1945, Lord Wavell scheduled a conference between them at Simla, where, the formation of a new executive of viceroy was discussed. Gandhi tried to involve Maulana Abul Azad on the behalf of the Congress. However, Jinnah was against it. He said, “The government will have only four Muslim representatives, and those will be only from the Muslim League. Congress has authority to appoint only Hindus as their representatives”. There were so many disputes over this point that at last Simla Conference failed. After this Viceroy Lord Wavell was considered infelicitous in Indian Politics.

    Preparation of armed action

    The Muslim League claimed that so far as they were not the slave of anyone except the Britishers, therefore there should be a separate nation for them. In order for their demand to be accepted, the Muslim League formulated their private army where training in fighting, stabbing to death, assaults were imparted separately. Arms were collected, and disbanded Muslim personnel of the Indian Army were recruited in the League army. This army continued to expand and equip with military equipments. This army was classified into two organizations- one was the Muslim League Volunteer Corp and second was the Muslim National Guards. The National Guard was a secret organization of the league. Its membership was secret, and it had its centers and headquarters, where its members were given military training and such instructions that would provide benefits to them during riots, such as the fore use of sticks, spears and knife. The commander of the National Guard was known as Salar.

    Achieving Pakistan- by hook or by crook

    Sent by the British government, Cripps’ and its mission of 1942 and the Cabinet mission of 1945 were an attempt to give back India its dominion status. But these missions proved a failure because the Congress and the League could not agree on the British government’s proposal. Congress wanted freedom of India as “Inviolated India” whereas the Muslim League wanted India to be first divided and then freed. When the Congress turned down the Muslim League’s demand, then Jinnah decided to call for “direct action.” Upon this, Jawaharlal Nehru trotted to Jinnah’s residence to convince him to withdraw his announcement of “direct action”, but failed.

    The Muslim League throughout India observed 16 August 1946 as “Direct Action Day” resulting in thousands of death in the city of Calcutta. Bengal Chief Minister Suhravardi while leading riots gave a slogan – Larke Lenge Pakistan. He declared a public holiday on that day so that the Muslim League leaders could successfully enforce violence. Bengal Governor Sir Frederick Burrows could not do anything to stop these riots.

    Jinnah got emotional for Pakistan in London

    Speaking in Kingsway Hall in London on 13 December 1946, regarding the future proceedings of the Constituent Assembly of India during the consultations with the British Government, Jinnah made a fevered plea for the Muslim state that one million Muslims would inhabit Pakistan. He also included that he wanted a separate state in the -western and north-eastern parts of India where they were in 70% majority and wherein they could live according to their lifestyle. “We are told that the so-called united India is British-made. It was by the strength of sword. It can only be held as it has been held. Do not be misled by anyone saying that India is one and should it not continue to be one. What do we want? I tell you, Pakistan. Pakistan presupposes that Hindustan should also be a free State.”

    Muslim League in Nehru’s Interim government

    On September 2, 1946, Interim government of India was formed. Jawaharlal Nehru was the head of it. However, Jinnah was not involved. Jinnah did not send anyone on the five seats kept reserved for the Muslim League. When the Interim Government delivered well without the Muslim League, Jinnah was comprehended and ultimately, he sent his League members to the government on October 15, 1946.

    Finance Ministry to Muslim

    League Upon the Muslim League joining the Interim government, the viceroy Lord Wavell advised the Congress that the Finance Ministry should remain with the Congress and Sardar Patel should be the head of it because they would need the ministry at every step to run the government. By then, Patel would have understood Jinnah and the Muslim League so well. Thus, he chose to offer finance portfolios to the Muslim League and to keep the Department of home affairs with himself.

    हमारी नई वैबसाइट - भारत का इतिहास -

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  • How Did Pakistan Emerge-2

    How Did Pakistan Emerge-2

    Indian government irked by Liaquat Ali khan’s attitude

    हमारी नई वैबसाइट - भारत का इतिहास -

    Liaquat Ali Khan was unhappy with the post of Finance Minister. He wanted the Ministry of Home Affairs. Chaudhary Muhammad Ali explained Liaquat Ali Khan about the importance of this post. He also accounted him that he could make such a budget which would force the millionaires Congress’s supporters to give up their support. Chaudhary Muhammad Ali was an Indian Audit and Account Service Officer. He had studied economics and law from London. On the suggestion of Chaudhary Muhammad Ali, Liaquat Ali Khan accepted the offer of becoming finance minister and began to object on every penny spent. The Muslim League was eyeing to destroy the government.

    Maulana Abul Kalam Azad writes that the Muslim League members of the cabinet used to hinder the government actions at every step. Despite being in the government, they were against the government. In fact, they were in the position to demolish government’s every step. The first budget presented by Liaquat Ali Khan was a new blow for the Congress. The declared Congress’s Policy was to eliminate economic disparities and to adopt socialist system gradually in place of capitalist society.

    Liaquat Ali Khan and Jawaharlal Nehru had spoken several times on the profits earned by traders and industrialists during the war time. It was also known that the large part of this income was kept hidden from income-tax. Thus, there was an urgent need to take a step for the income-tax recovery by the Indian government. In the budget presented by Liaquat Ali Khan, trade and industry were so heavily taxed that the traders and the industrialists started to yell. Due to this, not only the Congress but trade and industry of the country suffered a great loss permanently.

    Liaquat Ali Khan, in his budget speech, proposed the set up of a commission to inquire allegations of non-payments of income tax on the industrialists and traders and troll into the affairs of recovery of old taxes. He announced that this proposal had been prepared based on the Congress' manifesto. The Congress leaders were not in a position to say anything openly for the industrialists and traders. Liaquat Ali Khan had worked cunningly. He had already received the cabinet approval for the budget to be based on the communist policies. He gave no details about the taxes etc. to the Cabinet. When he presented the budget, the Congress leaders were shocked by it. Rajagopalachari and Sardar Patel opposed the budget with utmost indignation. As a finance minister, Liaquat Ali Khan got a right to interfere in every department of the government. He either used to reject every proposal or modify it. The whole cabinet was crippled from his activities. Even worse, not even a single peon could be appointed without his permission. He had left the Congress Ministers bewildered. With the aim to bridge the gap betweenGandhi and Jinnah, Ghanshyam Das Birla explained Liaquat Ali Khan very hard, but nothing happened. At last, upon the request of the Congress, Lord Mountbatten spoke with Liaquat Ali Khan and made him reduce the tax rates.

    Demand of two Constituent Assemblies

    At the beginning of 1946, elections were held to set up a constituent assembly, with the aim to draft a constitution of the future India. The Muslim League bagged enormous success in these elections, which clarified that the Congress had no option left other than to accept the demand of Pakistan. The constituent assembly started to work for the first time on 9 December 1946, but Jinnah refused to join the assembly. He sought to set up a separate constituent assembly for Pakistan and did not send the league representatives to the meetings of the constituent assembly. Veteran journalist Dr. D.R Manekar writes that Legislative producer committee started functioning in the environment of stress, frustration and uncertainty.

    Dishonest Referee

    Although some British historians have described the role of British power as a referee in the battle between the Congress and the Muslim League but in reality, the British power used to support the Muslim League more. They were those dishonest referees, who at the first opportunity used to punch secretly the opponent whom they didn’t like. Often, the Congress was used to be rebuked because they launched Quit India Movement against the Britishers while the Muslim League had completely supported the Britishers.

    Pakistan without coal and iron

    Most Congress leaders were against the partition of India. Some leaders such as Rajaji Rajagopalachari had understood well that it would be better to divide India on reasonable grounds rather than engaging in the affairs of India’s independence. Ghanshyam Birla also agreed with the views of Rajaji. He wrote letter to Nehru:

    Any partner in business, if he is not satisfied with partnership, I suppose has a right to demand separation. The separation, of course, has to be on an equitable basis, but I cannot conceive how anybody could object to it. If I were a Muslim, I would not accept Pakistan, because the separated Muslim India will be a very poor state, having no iron and no coal. But that is a look out of the Muslims themselves. I have no doubt in my own mind that, if you offered Pakistan, the Muslims would never accept it. But whether they want it or not, our opposition to it has created a thirst among the Muslims to have it.

    Edwina persuaded Mountbatten for partition

    The reliability of the Viceroy Wavell ended on the citizens of India when direct action led by the Muslim League caused bloodshed in Bihar and Bengal. He was then replaced by the new Viceroy Lord Mountbatten in March 1947. The latter’s work was only to liberate India and carry the Britishers in their full dignity and peace, out from India.

    From 24 March 1947, Lord Mountbatten took over the charge as the Viceroy of India. At that time, India was trapped in a precarious situation. The population of India was around 350 million in which 100 million were Muslim and 250 million were Hindus. The Congress was the country’s largest political party, which believed that it had got the support from 100% Hindus, Sikhs, others, and 90% Muslims.

    Whereas, the Muslim League believed that it had got support from 90% Muslims of the country. Mountbatten in India in his first speech said that his office would not be like an ordinary viceroy. In the wake of the British Government’s announcements, he came to find the solution to India’s problem in few months and to transfer his powers by June 1948. He sent his first report to the Attlee Government on 2 April 1947, in which he wrote that the country’s internal tensions are out of range; no matter how quickly the work would be done, there would be a threat of civil war outbreak.

    Like the Congress, Mountbatten was not in the favor of partition of India. In those days, his wife Edwina made a visit to the riot- affected areas. Her eyes were pierced seeing the dead bodies of those killed in the communal riots. After returning from riots-affected areas, Edwina explained her husband that the Congress would never accept the division of India; however, if the Britishers didn’t want to be accused of killing of millions of people, then Mountbatten had to divide India forcibly and prepare the Congress for it. Agreeing to her argument, Mountbatten tried to convince Gandhi, Nehru and Patel for the division. Nehru and Patel accepted the offer while Gandhi was unwilling to take it.

    Partition- a sheer madness

    Upon Nehru and Patel’s acceptance, Mountbatten sent the plan for the division of India to the Attlee Government along with a letter calling partition “shear madness”. He wrote that had these communal riots not left everyone savage, had there been any other option left for the partition, no one in the world would ever forced him to accept this madness. He wanted to “put the responsibility for any of these mad decisions fairly and squarely on the Indian shoulders in the eyes of the world, for one day they will bitterly regret the decision they are about to make.”

    Mountbatten had placed the responsibility of the partition of India on the Congress leaders whom he had convinced very hard for it. He must have had used the word “League leaders” instead of “Indians” in his report.

    Nehru- A savior

    Mountbatten declared the plan that India would be parted in two sovereign countries namely Pakistan and India. Public of any of the eleven British provinces under the British rule could refuse to integrate with any of these -Pakistan or India and could remain individually autonomous. The main reason behind Mountbatten’s plan was that neither India nor Pakistan would be imposed on them. They would be allowed to decide freely whether to be independent or join either of the two countries to form a large group.

    When the plan was put forth by Mountbatten before Jawaharlal Nehru, latter slashed it right away and asserted him that it would create a multitude of fragments all over the country. Nehru called it an ulcer which would cause violence and conflict in the country. Menon drew an alternative plan in six hour

    After Nehru’s violent outburst, Mountbatten asked V.P Menon, who was playing a double role in Indian Politics as the political aide as well as the Secretary of Ministry of States headed by Sardar Patel, to draw up an alternate plan. Sardar Patel and his close associate V. P Menon had already worked on this matter. Then, V.P. Menon formulated that plan on the papers in merely four hours with the help of a typewriter.

    This plan outlined that India would be divided into two parts based on the Dominion status, one representing Muslim-majority Pakistan and the other representing Hindu-majority India. It would be mandatory for the British Province to join India or Pakistan. Punjab and Bengal would be divided based on the population. Native Princes would be freed whether to join India, Pakistan or be independent. Nehru accepted the plan. Mountbatten knew that Jinnah would not accept the offer so readily because latter had demanded entire Bengal and Punjab based on the Muslim population. Still, Mountbatten sent this plan to London for approval.

    Afraid of Jinnah

    Leonard Moseley writes that Mountbatten became apprehensive of Jinnah after sending the plan to London for approval. He felt that Jinnah could oppose the parted Pakistan. Therefore, he spoke to Jinnah and after gaining confidence from him, he sent a telegram to Ismay in London saying he was sure about Jinnah’s approval. However, he knew that Jinnah could persuade him as Jinnah was an astute negotiator. Mountbatten was not satisfied yet. He devised a contingency plan to deal with Jinnah in case he retracted. This contingency plan had primarily provided that since Jinnah has given rejection to the plan therefore, power is being handed over to the current government.

    On Viceroy’s initiative, Gandhi met Jinnah at latter’s residence in Delhi on 6 May 1947. The map of India was propounded between them, in which Pakistan was shown in green color. After this meeting, Jinnah issued a circular which stated that Mr. Gandhi did not value the principles of separation. For him, the separation was not inevitable. However, in Jinnah’s view, it was imperative. It also mentioned that both had pledged to make sincere efforts to maintain communal peace in their respective areas.

    Maulana Abul Kalam Azad’s resistance

    When Maulana Abul Kalam Azad came to know about Mountbatten’s visit to Simla to negotiate with British Cabinet for the partition of India, then he also visited Simla to meet Mountbatten and proposed him to stand firmly on the cabinet mission plan to avoid the partitioning of India. On this, Lord Mountbatten said that any delay in the transfer of powers would raise doubts among people regarding the intentions of the British Government and bring it into disrepute.

    Strategies of Conrad Corfield

    Political advisor to Viceroy and Secretary of the Political Department, Sir Conrad Corfield, deeply sympathized with the rights of the Princes. His view was that the interest of India lay within the benefit of the Princes. Like the rulers, he also hated Nehru and the Congress. Conrad admitted that he could see Princely India, which was under Indian Civil Service as Real India more than that two-third of India. He advised the princes to make their organization stronger so as to prevent any interference of the Congress in their states.

    To integrate in India or Pakistan, the Chamber of Princes or “Narender Mandal” was divided into two factions, one of which -“United front of Kings” was working particularly for the Nawab of Bhopal. Corfield was promoting this faction. When Mountbatten sent the plan of India’s partition to the Government of London, then Conrad Corfield drove a campaign to protect the interests of his princes in London. Corfield argued that the princes had devoted their powers to the emperor only, not to any other person. Consequently, when the British would withdraw from India, paramountcy would lapse and all the rulers would get their powers back. It must entirely depend on them whether they wish to merge with India, Pakistan or remain independent. Secretary of State of India, Lord Listowel, supported Corfield’s policy and inserted a significant clause in the Indian Independence Bill. Mountbatten and the Congress leaders denounced this policy. In spite of many attempts by them, this clause wasn’t removed.

    When Mountbatten went to London to get the approval for the plan of partition by the Cabinet, Corfield in India, instructed the officers of the Political Department to remove the armies from the Princely States, cancel the trains, and end the post and telegraph system. He tried to create a void and disrupted relationship between the states and the Indian Union. He also instructed to destroy the letters and files related to the Princely States. As a result, many important records were burnt down. Overall, four tons of papers were destroyed. On the order of Corfield, the white officers had hurriedly cooked about four tons of files, reports, photographs, documents in which the details of whims, luxuries, cruelties, sexual-pleasure programs and so on of the last five generations of the rulers, emperors, Nawabs, etc. were hammered. Foreign leaders had marked many illustrated and non-illustrated sonnets of exciting adventures of the Indian rulers in secret files. Whimsical and comedic, cruel and venereal, and many such stories of the Indian kings were consumed into ashes. Such moment came several times when the relation of Indian rulers and foreign leaders were on the verge of break-up. Many of these instances must have been burnt in the pyre.

    The plea Corfield gave to the Attlee Government for the destruction of these papers and records was that if they could not save the future of our rulers then at least they could save their past so that no one in independent India could use those to blackmail them. Nehru and Patel came to know about the destruction of all the records, closing of the residencies and assigning of the Crown forces and the military camps to different states by the Political department, Nehru in a rage, ordered to stop this agitation immediately as there was a threat to the historical and valuable things of being destroyed in the fire. However, it was too late. In Patiala, Hyderabad, Indore, Mysore, Porbandar, Cochin, and New Delhi and in many other places, almost all files had been burnt.

    All India States Peoples’ Conference passed a resolution demanding that the Political Department and all of its agencies should be immediately transferred to the new Indian Government or a new department should be set up under the Central Government to perform the tasks of the Political Department. On 13 June, Viceroy held a meeting where Nehru, Patel, Kripalani, Jinnah, Liaquat Ali, Abdur Rab Nishtar, Sardar Baldev Singh and Corfield were present. Nehru accused Corfield of this incident. He held Corfield responsible for tarnishing the image of the country. Jinnah sided with Corfield and told Nehru if he had to make an allegation without any evidence, then that meeting had no point. According to Corfield, Wakefield had made a plan to send the records of historical significance to the Indian Office in London through the British High Commissioner in Delhi and destroy the records related to the episodes of the personal significance of rulers. It was decided at the meeting that those papers which the British Government did not want to handover to the Indian Government should not be burnt and handed over to the British High Commissioner. Also, the Political Department would be formed to safeguard the interests of the princes. Jinnah also added that the Muslim League would also constitute a Political Department. Corfield objected that before independence, neither the Congress nor the Muslim League could do this; because this would show that the paramountcy had been transferred from the Political Department to all new Political Departments before independence.

    Viceroy said that two new departments should be set up, but their name would be Princely Department instead of the Political Department. This should be entirely left up to the states whether they sent their representatives to Delhi, Karachi or their successors called the representatives of the governments at their place.

    Jinnah’s chauvinism

    When Mountbatten returned with an approval of the plan, then Jinnah suddenly demanded of a thousand miles path through Indian Territory to match West Pakistan and East Pakistan. On this, the Congress again got annoyed. However, Mountbatten somehow managed to mediate between both the parties.

    Gandhi reiterated his opposition

    At the evening prayer meeting of 31 May 1947, Gandhi once again reiterated his opposition to the partition of India. He also mentioned that the Congress Leaders would oppose the partition even if there would be a risk of terrible violence, even if the whole of India would burn down.

    Everyone against Gandhi On 2 June 1947, Mountbatten invited Nehru, Patel and Acharya Kripalani (the Congress President) on the behalf of the Congress; Liaquat Ali Khan, Rab Nishtar and Sardar Baldev Singh (representative of six million Sikhs) on the behalf of the Muslim League at his place and handed over the copies of the plan. These leaders took the copies of the plan but were apprehensive of Gandhi’s future move.

    The day when Mountbatten went to England, that day also Gandhi, in his prayer meeting, reiterated that they would not “give an inch of land as Pakistan” even if whole India would burn in a fire. However, a month had already passed accepting the consent of the division of India in the Congress Working Committee Commenting on the behavior of Indian leaders on 2 June 1947 at Mountbatten’s place, Mountbatten writes that they all hated Gandhi from inside. They all wanted to target Gandhi through him.

    Gandhi’s silence

    Collins and Lapierre write that on 2 June, after the Congress, the Muslim League and the Sikh Leaders left, Mountbatten called Gandhi and appealed him not to oppose the plan. Gandhi observed that day a vow of silence and wrote to Viceroy that he could not speak that day but would surely discuss it.

    Announcement on radio

    Accepting of the Mountbatten’s plan by the Viceroy and the Congress Leaders, and partition of India into two newly independent countries by the Britishers were made public on 3 June 1947 at seven in the evening. The Viceroy admitted that since the agreement between the Congress and the Muslim Leaders on a scheme for the country to stay united was not possible, therefore, with independence, the country would be partitioned into Hindustan and Pakistan based on the population.

    Nehru dreamt of one nation

    Nehru welcomed Viceroy’s declaration warmly and appealed Indians to accept the plan peacefully. He said that India’s Independence was not “one of compulsion or coercion.” If ever India would divide, then the two parts would soon unite and once again intact India would have “stronger and more secure foundation.” Jinnah said in his speech that it was for them then to concede the plan presented by the Britannia Government as a “compromise or settlement.” Leader of Sikhs, Baldev Singh said that it was not the compromise but the settlement. Not everyone would be happy with this, especially Sikhs. But still it was worthwhile. Finally, they were ready to accept it.

    Prayer Meeting of June

    On 4 June 1947, Mountbatten got the news that in the prayer meeting of that day, Gandhi would appeal Indian citizens to disapprove the plan of partition. Having learned of Gandhi’s move, Mountbatten called him and told him that the entire plan of the partition had been created as per his directions and the decision of the separation should be taken by the people, not by the Britishers.

    That day, Gandhi explained at his prayer meeting that nothing would happen by blaming the Viceroy. The answer of whatever was happening or had happened lay inside all of them [public]. He also conveyed to public to see themselves first before saying anything to anyone.

    Acceptance of division plan in A.I.C.C. 

    On 14 June 1947, at the meeting of the A.I.C.C, the resolution dealing with Mountbatten’s plan for dividing the India was moved. Many of the Congress leaders opposed it. However, Nehru, Patel, Govind Ballah Pant and Gandhi intervened in the debate and spoke for the partition. When resolution was put to vote, only 29 voted for partition and 15 voted against. The Hindus from Sindh opposed this resolution.

    Indian Independence Act 1947

    On 18 July 1947, Indian Independence Act was given the assent and came into force. It was recognized in the act that, on 15 August 1947, with the transfer of the powers by the British Government, two new dominions - Pakistan and India would come into being. The British suzerainty over 565 princely states of India would be ceased, and the treaty relations between the British Crown and Princely States would come to an end, with effect from 15 August 1947.

    Formation of Partition Council

    The Partition Council, headed by the Viceroy was formed to work in an orderly manner to divide the assets and liabilities. The decisions regarding currency, goods, and even furniture kept in banks, government premises and post offices were taken in the council. In times of partition, it was decided that Pakistan would receive 17.5% of the cash and sterling share kept in the banks. It was also accounted that 17.5% share of national debt of India was to be paid by Pakistan as compensation. Of all country’s vast government system, there would be a division in the ratio 80:20 between India and Pakistan.

    There were 18 thousand and 77 miles long roads, and 26 thousand and 421 miles long railway tracks in total, of which 4 thousand and 913 miles long roads, and 7 thousand and 112 miles long railway tracks were inherited by Pakistan. Viceroy’s white golden car came to India and in return, all the cars of Commander-in-Chief and Governor-General of Punjab were bagged in by Pakistan. Viceroy had six gold plated, and six silver plated buggies. Gold plated buggies went to India whereas silver plated buggies went to Pakistan.

    Preparation of division of India

    The Partition Council was formed, where H.M Patel was the Indian representative and Chaudhary Mohamed Ali was the Pakistani representative. Twenty committees and sub-committees were set up to help them in which nearly hundred high officials were hired. The work of these committees was to prepare various types of proposals and sent those to the Partition Council for approval. By that time, the legislative assembly elected in India was not in existence, due to which the Constituent Assembly was given the dual status of both Parliament as well as the Constituent Assembly.

    Before the partition of India, Lord Mountbatten founded two alternative governments from the Interim government to handle the administration of the two countries which were going to come into force on 15 August. Having improved the Government of India Act, 1935, the work of constitution from 1947 to 1950 in India and 1947 to 1956 in Pakistan was taken.

    A force of Gurkhas, called as Punjab Boundary Force was formed to maintain peace in Punjab. 55 thousand soldiers were appointed to the force. This force was placed in those areas where the massacre was most likely to occur. The army started its operation from 1 August 1947.

    Special trains for the officials

    On 3 August 1947, special trains were arranged for the officials willing to go to Pakistan from Delhi to Karachi. These trains, in return, had to carry officials wanting to come to India from Pakistan. By that time, the trains had come in the grip of terrible communal insanity. Therefore, statesman appealed the public not to use the trains. Statesman believed that trains would remain safe, but the trains carrying the officials from Pakistan were also trapped in the communal violence.

    Two alternative governments

    Before the partition, Lord Mountbatten formed two alternative governments from the interim government of India to administrate the work of both the countries which was going to come into being on 15 August 1947.

    हमारी नई वैबसाइट - भारत का इतिहास -

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