Blogs Home / Blogs / /
  • ब्रिटिश शासन में कुटीर उद्योगों का पतन

     04.05.2018
    ब्रिटिश शासन में कुटीर उद्योगों का पतन

    आधुनिक भारत का इतिहास - अध्याय: 10


    अँग्रेजों के भारत आगमन के समय भारतीय कुटीर उद्योग 


    अँग्रेजों के भारत आगमन के समय भारतीय कुटीर उद्योगों द्वारा उत्पादित वस्तुएँ की गुणवत्ता विश्वभर में प्रसिद्ध थी। भारत में सूत कातना और बुनना, प्राचीन काल से ही एक घरेलू व्यवसाय था। भारत शताब्दियों से सुन्दर और महीन सूती कपड़ों के लिये सम्पूर्ण विश्व में प्रसिद्ध था। कपड़ा देश के निर्यात की सबसे महत्त्वपूर्ण वस्तु थी। इसके उत्पादन के मुख्य केन्द सम्पूर्ण भारत में फैले हुए थे। ढाका की मलमल पूरे विश्व में मंगवाई जाती थी।

    1918 ई. में प्रकाशित प्रथम भारतीय औद्योगिक आयोग की रिपोर्ट में कहा गया कि जिस समय आधुनिक औद्योगिक व्यवस्था के जन्म स्थान पश्चिमी यूरोप में असभ्य जातियां निवास करती थीं, उस समय भारत अपने शासकों के वैभव और शिल्पकारों की उच्च कोटि की कलात्मक कारीगरी के लिये विख्यात था। काफी समय बाद भी जब पश्चिम के साहसी सौदागर पहली बार भारत पहुंचे, तब भी इस देश का आद्यौगिक विकास किसी भी कीमत पर विकसित यूरोप के देशों से कम नहीं था।

    1616 ई. से 1619 ई. के समय का वर्णन करते हुए टेरी ने लिखा है- 'रंग और छापे का काम भी भारत में इस समय श्रेष्ठ था। पक्के रंगों का प्रयोग किया जाता था और सुन्दर चित्र और बेल-बूटे बनाये जाते थे। यद्यपि सूती कपड़े की तुलना में रेशमी कपड़े की बुनाई का काम कम होता था। फिर भी यह एक महत्त्वपूर्ण हस्तकला उद्योग था।'

    मुगल काल में कालीन एवं शॉल उद्योग, काष्ठ उद्योग, चमड़ा उद्योग, स्वर्ण उद्योग, चीनी उद्योग, हाथी-दाँत उद्योग भी विश्व भर में प्रसिद्ध हो गये थे। इस प्रकार, अँग्रेजों के आने से पहले 17वीं और 18वीं शताब्दी में भारत; विश्व का एक प्रमुख औद्योगिक केन्द्र था। 17वीं शताब्दी के मध्य में बर्नियर नामक फ्रांसीसी यात्री ने लिखा- 'भारतवर्ष को छोड़कर कोई भी देश ऐसा नहीं था जहाँ इतनी विभिन्न प्रकार की वस्तुएँ पाई जाती हों।'

    बर्नियर एक बहुत बड़े कमरे (हॉल) का विवरण देता है जिसे वह कारखाने के नाम से पुकारता है। वह लिखता है- 'एक बड़े कमरे में निपुण कार्यकर्त्ता के निरीक्षण में कढ़ाई करने वाले व्यस्त हैं, दूसरे में सुनार, तीसरे में चित्रकार, चौथे में लैकर (वार्निश करने वाले), पाँचवे में बढ़ई, खरादी, दर्जी तथा मोची, छठे में रेशम, जरी और बारीक मलमल के उत्पादक। शिल्पी प्रतिदिन प्रातःकाल कारखाने में काम के लिये आते हैं, दिन भर व्यस्त रहते हैं और शाम को घर लौट जाते हैं।'

    विदेशी यात्रियों के यात्रा-वर्णन से एक महत्त्वपूर्ण तथ्य की पुष्टि होती है कि 18वीं सदी तक भारत के कुटीर उद्योग उन्नत अवस्था में थे और भारत की आर्थिक स्थिति अन्य देशों की तुलना में अच्छी थी।

    भारतीय उद्योगों का वर्गीकरण

    डॉ. राधाकमल मुखर्जी ने अँग्रेजों के भारत में आने से पहले के भारतीय उद्योगों को इस प्रकार वर्गीकृत किया है-

    (1.) घरेलू आवश्यकता पूर्ति हेतु ग्रामीण उद्योग ये उद्योग खेती के अवकाश काल में चलते थे तथा घरेलू आवश्यकताओं की पूर्ति करते थे। इनमें स्थानीय सामग्री यथा- सरकंडे, घास, बाँस, मिट्टी, ऊन, सूत आदि का प्रयोग होता था।

    (2.) कृषि उपकरण आधारित ग्रामीण उद्योग ये उद्योग कृषि कार्य में प्रयुक्त होने वाली सामग्री बनाते थे। गाँव के आत्मनिर्भर समाज की आवश्यकताओं की पूर्ति के लिये लुहार, बढ़ई, कुम्हार आदि बराबर काम में लगे रहते थे।

    (3.) कलात्मक ग्रामीण उद्योग गाँव के कलात्मक उद्योग जो कि उच्च कोटि की ग्रामीण कला के प्रतीक थे और जिनकी समुद्र पार के देशों में भी माँग थी।

    (4.) नगरीय उद्योग इनका संगठन अत्यंत उच्चकोटि का था। इनमें से कुछ उद्योग आज के औद्योगिक विश्व में भी जीवित हैं, जैसे- कश्मीरी शॉल उद्योग, उत्तरी भारत का फुलकरी उद्योग आदि।

    ग्रामीण उद्योगों की विशेषताएँ

    (1.) कच्चे माल की उपलब्धता

    ग्रामीण उद्योगों की विशेषता यह थी कि ग्रामीण कारीगर, गाँव से ही अपने शिल्प के लिये आवश्यक कच्चे माल (जैसे लकड़ी, मिट्टी, चमड़ा, कपड़ा आदि) का प्रबन्ध कर लेता था। जंगलों से लकड़ी मिल जाती थी, मृत पशुओं पर से मोची अपने काम के लिये चमड़ा प्राप्त करता था। देश के प्रायः प्रत्येक भाग में कपास की खेती होती थी। लोहा तथा अन्य धातुएं ही ऐसी होती थीं जो नगरीय बाजारों से क्रय करनी पड़ती थीं। इस प्रकार उद्योग के लिये आवश्यक कच्चे माल के लिये गाँव लगभग आत्म-निर्भर थे।

    (2.) तैयार माल की खपत

    गाँव में जो चीजें बनती थीं उनमें से अधिकांश की खपत गाँव में ही हो जाती थी। इसका कारण यह था कि हस्तशिल्पी पूरे गाँव का या कुछ विशेष परिवारों का सेवक होता था। इसलिये उसे अपना माल बेचने के लिये अन्यत्र जाने की आवश्यकता नहीं थी। फिर भी जो माल बच जाता था, वह विभिन्न गाँवों में लगने वाले साप्ताहिक मेलों में बेचा जाता था।

    (3.) मूलभूत आवश्यकताओं की सामग्री का निर्माण

    ग्रामीण उद्योग केवल मनुष्य की मूल आवश्यकताओं तक सीमित थे। गाँव में विलासिता की वस्तुएँ उत्पादन करने वाला उद्योग नहीं के बराबर था।

    (4.) वस्तु-विनिमय आधारित विपणन

    गाँव में उत्पादित वस्तुओं का विनिमय गाँव की प्रजा तक सीमित था। आवश्यकता पड़ने पर किसान दस्तकार से सामान या सेवा लेता था किन्तु वह दस्तकार को हर बार भुगतान नहीं करता था। दस्तकार का भुगतान समस्त गांव की सम्मिलित जिम्मेदारी होती थी। कारीगर को गांव की ओर से गाँव की जमीन का कुछ अंश स्थायी तौर पर जोतने के लिये मिला रहता था या फसल कटने पर उसे अनाज की निश्चित मात्रा दी जाती थी।

    नगरीय उद्योगों की विशेषताएँ

    ग्रामीण उद्योग के साथ-साथ नगरीय उद्योग भी विद्यमान थे। ग्रामीण उद्योगों द्वारा जहाँ गाँव की सीमित आवश्यकताओं की पूर्ति होती थी, वहीं नगरीय उद्योग, कुलीन सामंत वर्ग एवं धनी व्यापारी वर्ग के उपयोग तथा विलासिता की वस्तुओं का उत्पादन करते थे। नगरीय उद्योगों को मूलतः तीन भागों में विभाजित किया जा सकता है- (

    1.) नगरों के समस्त उद्योगों का बहुत बड़ा हिस्सा भारत और विदेशों के कुलीन और सम्पन्न लोगों के लिये विलासिता एवं अर्द्ध-विलासिता की सामग्री का उत्पादन करता था।

    (2.) वे उद्योग जो राज्य या सार्वजनिक संस्थाओं की आवश्यकताओं की पूर्ति करते थे।

    (3.) वे उद्योग जिनमें लोहा गलाने, कलमी शोरा तैयार करने या चूड़ी बनाने जैसे काम किये जाते थे।

    नगरीय उद्योगों का बाजार अत्यंत सीमित था क्योंकि इन उद्योगों में केवल सामंत, कुलीन एवं धनी व्यक्तियों तथा निर्यात के लिये जाने वाली वस्तुओं का निर्माण होता था।

    नगरीय उद्योग में काम करने वाले दो प्रकार के व्यक्ति थे-

    (1.) स्वतंत्र रूप से काम करने वाले।

    (2.) राज्य या व्यापारिक प्रतिष्ठान के कारखानों में नौकरी करने वाले।

    बड़े नगरों में प्रत्येक उद्योग एक संघ (श्रेणी) में संगठित था। प्रत्येक उद्योग का एक मुखिया होता था। वह श्रम तथा उत्पादन का मूल्य निर्धारित करता था तथा विवादों का निपटारा करता था। अनुभवी शिल्पकार नये शिल्पकारों को प्रशिक्षण देते थे। उद्योग एक वंशानुगत व्यवसाय था और शिल्पकार एक विशेष जाति का सदस्य होता था। इसलिये शिल्प-संघ जातीय सत्ता से नियंत्रित होते थे।

    ईस्ट इण्डिया कम्पनी की कठिनाइयाँ ईस्ट इण्डिया कम्पनी एक व्यापारिक संस्था थी जिसका मूल उद्देश्य भारत के माल और उत्पादनों के व्यापार पर एकाधिकार स्थापित करके लाभ अर्जित करना था।

    कम्पनी को भारतीय उद्योगों के साथ काम करने में अनेक कठिनाइयों का सामना करना पड़ा-

    (1.) कम्पनी भारत में तैयार माल के बदले में सोने-चांदी के अतिरिक्त और कुछ नहीं दे सकती थी क्योंकि ब्रिटेन में ऐसा कुछ भी नहीं बनता था या पैदा होता था जिसे भारतीय सामग्री के बदले में दिया जा सके।

    (2.) भारतीय कपड़े को इंग्लैण्ड में ले जाकर बेचने से कम्पनी को तो बड़ा लाभ हुआ किंतु इंग्लैण्ड के कपड़ा उद्योग के लिये संकट उत्पन्न हो गया। रॉबिन्सन क्रूसो नामक उपन्यास के लेखक डैफी ने लिखा है- 'भारतीय कपड़ा हमारे घरों, अलमारियों और सोने के कमरों में घुस गया है। परदे, गद्दे, कुर्सियों और बिस्तर के रूप में और कुछ नहीं, अपितु केलिको या भारतीय सामान है।'

    (3.) 1688 ई. में जब इंग्लैण्ड में फ्रांस से होने वाले आयात पर रोक लगा दी गई तो कम्पनी द्वारा भारत से किये जाने वाले आयात में भारतीय सूती कपड़े का स्थान सबसे ऊपर हो गया। सूती कपड़े के आयात में वृद्धि होने से इंग्लैण्ड में कम्पनी के विरुद्ध विरोध भड़क उठा। यह विरोध दो कारणों से हुआ- 

         (अ.) भारत से किये जाने वाले व्यापार के कारण इंग्लैण्ड का सोना-चांदी भारत जा रहे थे।

         (ब.) इंग्लैण्ड के नवोदित रेशमी वस्त्र उद्योग के लिए बड़ा खतरा उत्पन्न हो गया था।

    इस कारण 1700 ई. में एक कानून बनाया गया कि फ्रांस, चीन या ईस्टइंडीज में बने रेशम, बंगाल के रेशम या रेशमी कपड़े अथवा उक्त देशों में छपे या रंगे गये कपड़े ब्रिटिश शासन के क्षेत्र में न तो पहने जा सकेंगे और न किसी अन्य प्रकार से काम में लाये जायेंगे। इस प्रतिबंध के उपरांत भी इंग्लैण्ड में भारत के सूती कपड़े का आयात बन्द नहीं हो सका।

    1702 ई. में सादे सूती कपडे़ पर भारी आयात शुल्क लगाया गया। इसके उपरांत भी इंग्लैण्ड में भारतीय सूती कपड़े का आयात बढ़ता ही गया। भारतीय कपड़े की श्रेष्ठता के कारण 1750 ई. के बाद भी भारत से उल्लेखनीय मात्रा में सूती कपड़ा मंगाया गया। यह इस तथ्य के बावजूद था कि भारतीय कपड़ा प्रयुक्त करने वालों पर इंग्लैण्ड में जुर्माना लगाया जाता था। 1760 ई. में एक अँग्रेजी महिला पर 200 पौण्ड का जुर्माना केवल इसलिये लगाया गया कि उसके पास एक विदेशी रूमाल था।

    भारतीय कुटीर उद्योगों के विनाश के कारण

    (1.) मुगल सत्ता के विघटन से उत्पन्न स्थिति औरंगजेब के जीवनकाल में ही मुगलों की केन्द्रीय सत्ता शिथिल होने लगी तथा 1707 ई. में उसकी मृत्यु के बाद तेजी से पतन की ओर अग्रसर हो गई। विभिन्न प्रान्तों के सूबेदार केन्द्रीय सत्ता के नियंत्रण से मुक्त होकर स्वतंत्र राज्यों की स्थापना करने लगे। दक्षिण की मराठा शक्ति, उत्तरी भारत में भी आ धमकी और मुगलों की संरक्षक बन गई। नादिरशाह (1739 ई.) और अहमदशाह अब्दाली (1761 ई.) के आक्रमणों ने देश की स्थिति को अत्यधिक शोचनीय बना दिया। अशान्ति और अराजकता की इस स्थिति में कुटीर-उद्योगों का ह्रास हुआ। जब ईस्ट इण्डिया कम्पनी ने उन पर चोट की तो वे भरभरा कर गिरने लगे।

    (2.) देशी राज्यों का विनाश भारतीय रियासतों के शासक परम्परागत भारतीय कुटीर-उद्योगों के संरक्षक थे। वे कुशल शिल्पियों एवं कारीगरों को निरन्तर सहायता एवं संरक्षण देकर प्रोत्साहित करते थे। उनके महलों एवं दरबारों की साज-सज्जा के लिये श्रेष्ठ कलात्मक वस्तुओं की माँग बनी रहती थी। भारत में ब्रिटिश सत्ता की स्थापना के बाद देशी राज्यों का अन्त होने लगा और कम्पनी की शासन व्यवस्था स्थापित होने लगी। देशी राज्यों की समाप्ति से नगरीय परम्परागत हस्तकलाओं एवं उद्योगों पर विपरीत प्रभाव पड़ा। राज्यों के समाप्त हो जाने से हास्तकला सामग्री की माँग घट गई जिससे श्रेष्ठ कलात्मक वस्तुओं का उत्पादन कम हो गया तथा बड़ी संख्या में शिल्पी बेरोजगार हो गये।

    (3.) ईस्ट इण्डिया कम्पनी की दमनकारी नीतियाँ अँग्रेजों ने भारत से आयात-निर्यात के व्यापार में अपना पक्ष मजबूत रखने के लिए न्यूनतम मूल्य पर अधिक-से-अधिक माल खरीदने और इस कार्य में सैनिक बल का प्रयोग करने की नीति बनाई। कम्पनी के अधिकारी तथा उनके प्रतिनिधि भारतीय जुलाहों को एक निश्चित समय में निश्चित प्रकार का कपड़ा तैयार करने के लिये विवश करते थे और फिर अपनी इच्छानुसार काफी कम मूल्य चुकाते थे। आना-कानी करने वाले जुलाहों के अँगूठे काट दिये जाते थे। इस कारण वस्त्र उद्योग में लगे हुए हजारों परिवार बंगाल छोड़कर भाग गये। यही स्थिति अन्य उद्योगों के कारीगरों तथा श्रमिकों की हुई।

    1762 ई. में बंगाल के नवाब ने कम्पनी के अधिकारियों से कम्पनी के एजेन्टों की शिकायत की- 'कम्पनी के एजेंट रैयतों, किसानों, व्यापारियों, आदि से जबरदस्ती एक चौथाई कीमत देकर उनके माल और उत्पादन हड़प रहे हैं और किसानों आदि को मार-पीटकर तथा उनका दमन करके अपनी एक रुपये की चीज पाँच रुपये में बेच रहे है।'

    ऐसी परिस्थितियों में भारतीय कारीगरों के लिये काम करना असम्भव हो गया। भारतीय माल खरीदने और भारत में कम्पनी की पूँजी लगाने का तरीका ऐसा रखा गया कि हर बार गरीब बुनकर या कारीगर के साथ धोखा होता था।

    सर विलियम बोल्ट्स ने लिखा है- 'आमतौर पर बुनकर की सहमति आवश्यक नहीं समझी जाती क्योंकि कम्पनी की ओर से नियुक्त गुमाश्ते उनसे जो चाहते हैं, हस्ताक्षर करा लेते हैं। जितने रुपये उन्हें दिये जाते हैं उतने लेने से इन्कार करने पर वे रुपये उनकी कमरबन्द में बाँध दिये जाते हैं और कोड़ों से मार-पीटकर उन्हें भगा दिया जाता है।'

    कम्पनी और उसके कर्मचारियों द्वारा अपनाये गये तौर-तरीकों का भारतीय कुटीर उद्योगों पर विनाशकारी प्रभाव पड़ना अनिवार्य था।

    (4.) इंग्लैण्ड के अन्य व्यापारियों का भारत में प्रवेश उन्नीसवीं शताब्दी के प्रारम्भ में इंग्लैण्ड का युवा वर्ग भारत में मची लूट में अपनी हिस्सेदारी प्राप्त करने के लिये मचल उठा। इसलिये 1813 ई. के चार्टर एक्ट द्वारा भारत में ईस्ट इण्डिया कम्पनी का व्यापारिक एकाधिकार समाप्त करके निजी व्यापारियों को भारत में व्यापार करने की छूट दे दी गई। इससे इंग्लैण्ड के बहुत से व्यापारिक संस्थान अपना-अपना माल लेकर भारत आ गये। उनके आने से भारत में आर्थिक शोषण का नया दौर आरम्भ हुआ। 1813 ई. के पूर्व भारत का महत्त्व लूटपाट तथा कर एवं नजराने प्राप्त करने के साधन के रूप में था जबकि 1813 ई. के बाद भारत का महत्त्व, इस दृष्टि से हो गया कि इंग्लैण्ड की मशीनों द्वारा तैयार किया गया माल भारत में किस प्रकार खपाया जाये और इंग्लैण्ड की मशीनों के लिये कच्चा माल भारत से इंग्लैण्ड किस तरह लाया जाये।

    (5.) औद्योगिक क्रान्ति का प्रभाव 1769 ई. में जेम्स वाट ने भाप की शक्ति का आविष्कार किया। उसके बाद इंग्लैण्ड में मशीनीकरण एवं औद्योगिकीकरण का काम हुआ। 18वीं शताब्दी के उत्तरार्द्ध में भारत की लूट से जो कुछ अर्जित किया गया, उसी से आधुनिक इंग्लैण्ड का निर्माण हुआ तथा इंग्लैण्ड में औद्योगिक क्रांति सम्पन्न हुई। भारत से लूटे गये कच्चे माल से इंग्लैण्ड की मशीनों पर बड़े पैमाने पर उत्पादन होने लगा। अँग्रेजी कारखानों में बने हुए माल के लिये बाजार ढँूढने का काम आरम्भ हुआ। इन उत्पादों ने भारतीय माल को पहले तो विदेशी बाजारों से और फिर भारतीय बाजारों से खदेड़ना आरम्भ कर दिया। भारत के परम्परागत कुटीर-उद्योग, इंग्लैण्ड की मशीनों पर उत्पादित अच्छे माल से प्रतिस्पर्धा नहीं कर सके, विशेषकर उस स्थिति में जब उनसे राज्याश्रय छिन गया था। भारत में पुराने इजारेदारों की जगह स्वतंत्र बाजार का निर्माण किया गया। भारत जो सूती कपड़े का निर्यातक देश था, सूती कपड़े का आयातक बन गया।

    कार्ल मार्क्स ने 10 जून 1853 को न्यूयार्क डेली ट्रिब्यून में द ब्रिटिश रूल इन इण्डिया शीर्षक से एक लेख लिखा जिसमें उसने लिखा कि ब्रिटिश भाप और विज्ञान ने समूचे हिन्दुस्तान में कृषि और कारखाना उद्योग की एकता को जड़ से उखाड़ फैंका।

    (6.) भारतीय माल पर निषेधात्मक शुल्क इंग्लैण्ड में मशीनों से सूती कपड़ा बनने पर भी वह भारतीय कपड़े की तुलना में महँगा था। इसलिये ब्रिटिश सरकार ने एक ओर तो भारतीय माल के आयात पर इतना अधिक शुल्क लगा दिया कि उसका आयात ही न हो सके और दूसरी ओर अपने माल पर किसी तरह का शुल्क चुकाये बिना, भारत पर अपना माल लाद दिया। साथ ही उत्पीड़न और अन्याय के द्वारा भारतीय मंडियों में अपना प्रभुत्व स्थापित कर लिया।

    (7.) कठोर कानूनों के द्वारा कच्चे माल की लूट 1814 ई. के बाद ब्रिटिश सरकार ने ऐसे कानूनों का निर्माण किया जिनके सहारे भारत से कच्चे माल का सुगमता पूर्वक निर्यात किया जा सके और तैयार माल को भारत में बेचा जा सके। लगातार पड़ रहे अकालों के कारण लाखों भारतीय भूखे मर रहे थे किंतु भारत का अनाज बाहर भेजा जा रहा था। देश के भीतर चुंगी और सीमा-शुल्क बढ़ा दिये गये ताकि भारतीय व्यापारी व्यापार न कर सकें। 1835 ई. में भारतीय रुई पर 15 प्रतिशत चुंगी तथा सूती कपड़े पर 25 प्रतिशत चुंगी निर्धारित की गई ताकि भारतीय उत्पादक, कपड़े के स्थान पर रुई का ही निर्यात करें। ब्रिटिश अधिकारी ट्रेवेलियन ने लिखा है- 'व्यक्तिगत और घरेलू उपयोग की 235 से भी अधिक वस्तुओं पर अन्तर्देशीय कर लगाये गये थे।'

    (8.) पाश्चात्य सभ्यता का प्रभाव भारत के कुटीर-उद्योगों के पतन में पाश्चात्य सभ्यता और शिक्षा ने भी महत्त्वपूर्ण भूमिका निभाई। पश्चिमी शिक्षा प्राप्त कर सरकारी नौकरियों में लगे भारतीय, विदेशी वस्तुओं के प्रति आकर्षित हुए। घरों में सजावट के लिये स्वदेशी कलात्मक वस्तुओं के स्थान पर पाश्चात्य सामग्री का उपयोग होने लगा। विदेशी वस्तुओं का उपयोग समाज में गौरव और प्रतिष्ठा का प्रतीक बन गया। शासक, सामन्त, सरकारी कर्मचारी, नवयुवा वर्ग, विदेशी वस्तुओं के उपयोग में एक-दूसरे से होड़ करने लगे थे। ऐसी स्थिति में स्वदेशी वस्तुओं- विशेषकर साज-सज्जा की कलात्मक वस्तुओं एवं सूती वस्त्रों की माँग में कमी आने लगी और कुटीर-उद्योगों का पतन होने लगा।

    (9.) भारतीय कागज पर रोक भारतीय नगरों के बाहर प्रायः एक छोटा उपनगर होता था जहाँ कागज बनता था। ब्रिटिश शासकों ने भारतीय कार्यालयों में ब्रिटेन में बने कागज का उपयोग करना अनिवार्य कर दिया। इससे भारत के कागज उद्योग को भारी क्षति पहुँची। आज भी भारत के बहुत से नगरों में कागज मौहल्ला के नाम से स्थान मिलते हैं।

    (10.) भारतीय जहाजरानी के प्रयोग पर रोक ईस्ट इण्डिया कम्पनी ने इंग्लैण्ड एवं भारत के बीच होने वाले व्यापार के लिये केवल ब्रिटिश जहाजों का उपयोग किया। इससे भारतीय नौ-परिवहन उद्योग पर संकट खड़ा हो गया।

    (11.) अस्त्र-शस्त्रों के निर्माण पर रोक भारत के उत्तर-पश्चिम में कच्छ, सिन्ध और पंजाब प्रांतों में ढाल, तलवार और अन्य हथियारों का खूबसूरत काम होता था किन्तु ब्रिटिश शासन ने इस काम को पूरी तरह समाप्त कर दिया। अँग्रेजी शासन ने हथियारों से लैस रहने और उनके उपयोग की आवश्यकताओं को समाप्त कर दिया और उन पर प्रतिबन्ध लगा दिया। इस कारण ये उद्योग भी नष्ट हो गये।

    (12.) रेल का निर्माण ब्रिटिश सरकार ने भारत में रेलों का निर्माण इस उद्देश्य से किया कि वह ब्रिटेन के उद्योगों को कच्चे माल और बाजार सम्बन्धी आवश्यकताओं की पूर्ति कर सके। 19वीं शताब्दी में भारत में रेलों का जाल बिछ गया। इससे ग्रामीण हस्तशिल्प वैश्विक प्रतिस्पर्धा का शिकार हो गया। साथ ही भारतीय हस्त-शिल्पियों का पारम्परिक ग्रामीण समुदाय के साथ सम्बन्ध शिथिल होने लगा। क्योंकि अब सात समंदर पार से आने वाली सस्ती मशीनी चीजें गाँव में भी उपलब्ध होने लगीं। यातायात के सुगम साधनों से गाँव के लोग शहर जाने लगे जिससे ग्रामीण समुदाय टूटने लगे। सस्ते यूरोपीय सूती कपड़े और बर्तनों के अत्यधिक आयात से ग्रामीण हस्तकला उद्योग नष्ट हो गये।

    (13.) अकालों का दुष्प्रभाव ब्रिटिश शासन की स्थापना के बाद बार-बार पड़ने वाले अकालों ने भी कुटीर-उद्योगों के पतन में योगदान दिया। अकालों के परिणामस्वरूप लाखों लोग मारे गये जिनमें कारीगर और शिल्पी भी थे। इसके अलावा जो लोग बच गये थे, उनकी स्थिति भी शोचनीय हो गई थी। जुलाहे, धोबी, कुम्हार, लुहार, बढ़ई आदि शिल्पकार बेकारी और भुखमरी से पीड़ित हो गये और उनके व्यवसाय चौपट हो गये।

    (14.) गिल्ड पद्धति का नाश जब तक भारतीय शहरी उद्योगों में गिल्ड पद्धति बनी रही, कुटीर-उद्योगों में अनुशासन बना रहा। गिल्ड पद्धति के नष्ट होने से कारीगरों एवं उनके द्वारा निर्मित्त वस्तुओं पर निगरानी रखने वाला कोई संगठन न रहा। इससे कुटीर-उद्योगों को भारी धक्का लगा।

    (15.) प्रशिक्षण का अभाव भारतीय कारीगरों को औद्योगिक कौशल देने के लिये जिस प्रशिक्षण की आवश्यकता थी, उसका नितांत अभाव रहा। प्रशिक्षण के अभाव में वे उत्तम कोटि की वस्तुएँ बनाने में असफल रहे जिससे उनके उत्पादों की माँग घट गई और परम्परागत उद्योग बन्द हो गये। इस प्रकार, उन्नीसवीं शताब्दी के उत्तरार्द्ध तक भारत के कुटीर-उद्योग धीरे-धीरे समाप्त प्रायः हो गये किन्तु वे पूर्णतः विनष्ट नहीं हो सके, उनमें से कुछ तो आज भी जीवित हैं।


  • Share On Social Media:
  • ब्रिटिश शासन के अन्तर्गत भारत में न्यायिक सुधार

     21.08.2017
    ब्रिटिश शासन के अन्तर्गत भारत में न्यायिक सुधार

    आधुनिक भारत का इतिहास - अध्याय: 11

    मुगल कालीन न्याय व्यवस्था का ह्रास

    मुगल कालीन न्याय व्यवस्था कुरान के सिद्धांतों पर अवलम्बित थी किंतु उसका दण्ड विधान हिन्दुओं पर भी लागू किया गया था। अकबर के काल में काजी न्याय करते थे तथा मीर अदल का सम्बन्ध ऐसे मामलों से होता था जो दोनों समुदायों की धार्मिक विधि में सम्मिलित नहीं थे। मुगल प्रशासन के उत्तरार्द्ध में भूमि सुपुर्दगी प्रथा से समृद्ध भू-स्वामियों की शक्ति बढ़ने लगी। इससे न्याय व्यवस्था भी कई तरह से प्रभावित हुई। नई स्थिति में न्याय-प्रशासन केवल बड़े शहरों तक ही सीमित रह गया, जहाँ गवर्नरों की शक्ति अधिक थी। अन्य क्षेत्रों में न्याय से सम्बन्धित अधिकारियों के स्थान जमींदारों, धनी किसानों और लगान अधिकारियों ने प्राप्त कर लिये। दीवानी और फौजदारी अदालतों पर जमींदारों का अधिकार स्थापित हो गया। इस प्रकार 1757 ई. में प्लासी के युद्ध के पहले ही न्याय प्रबन्ध बिगड़ता जा रहा था, जो कम्पनी के शासन के आरम्भिक वर्षों में और अधिक बिगड़ गया।

    बंगाल में द्वैध शासन के अंतर्गत न्याय व्यवस्था

    बक्सर के युद्ध के बाद 1765 ई. में कम्पनी को बंगाल, बिहार और उड़ीसा की दीवानी के अधिकार प्राप्त हुए। दीवानी का तात्पर्य था कि कम्पनी बंगाल, बिहार और उड़ीसा में लगान वसूल करे और दीवानी मुकदमों का फैसला करे। निजामत (सैनिक शक्ति और फौजदारी मुकदमों का अधिकार) नवाब ने पहले ही कम्पनी को दे दिया था। लॉर्ड क्लाईव इतनी सारी जिम्मेदारी कम्पनी पर नहीं डालना चाहता था, क्योंकि वह जानता था कि कम्पनी इतनी बड़ी जिम्मेदारी का निर्वहन नहीं कर पायेगी। इसीलिए क्लाइव ने वैदेशिक सम्बन्ध, सैनिक शक्ति तथा राजस्व प्राप्त करने के अधिकार कम्पनी के पास रखे किन्तु न्याय व्यवस्था भारतीयों के जिम्में छोड़ दी। इस कार्य के लिए बंगाल और बिहार में दो नायब दीवान नियुक्त किये गये। इस प्रकार कम्पनी इन क्षेत्रों में शासक तो थी, किन्तु अपने शासन के लिए उत्तरदायी नहीं थी। यह व्यवस्था वारेन हेस्टिंग्ज की नियुक्ति तक चलती रही।

    वारेन हेस्टिंग्ज के पहले न्याय-प्रबन्ध में जो भी परिवर्तन किये गये वे केवल लगान बढ़ाने के उद्देश्य से प्रेरित थे। 1769 ई. में कम्पनी की सलेक्ट कमेटी ने यूरोपीय पर्यवेक्षकों की नियुक्ति की जिनका कार्य न्याय प्रणाली पर नियंत्रण रखना था, क्योंकि लगान अधिकारियों और जमींदारों द्वारा न्यायिक अधिकारों का मनमाने ढंग से प्रयोग किया जा रहा था और न्याय अधिकारियों के पद वंशानुगत हो जाने से लोगों को न्याय मिलने की संभावना कम होती जा रही थी। दूसरी ओर राजस्व के मामलों में न्याय प्रदान करने के उद्देश्य से कम्पनी ने दो राजस्व नियंत्रक कौंसिलें, मुर्शिदाबाद और पटना में स्थापित कीं। ये अपील के मुकदमों में उच्च न्यायालय के समान थीं किन्तु उनके कार्य करने का ढंग वैसा ही मनमाना और अनियमित था जैसा कि लगान अधिकारियों और जमींदारों का था।

    एक ओर मुगल न्याय व्यवस्था बिगड़ रही थी और दूसरी ओर कम्पनी की न्याय व्यवस्था विकसित नहीं हो पा रही थी। कम्पनी की सलेक्ट कमेटी और प्रेसीडेन्ट एवं कौंसिल के बीच लगातार होने वाले झगड़ों, मराठा और मैसूर के युद्धों और बंगाल के भयंकर अकालों के कारण कम्पनी सरकार न्याय-प्रबन्ध की ओर ध्यान नहीं दे सकी।

    हेस्टिंग्ज द्वारा किये गये उपाय

    न्याय-व्यवस्था में सुधार लाने की दृष्टि से वारेन हेस्टिंग्ज का काल अत्यन्त महत्त्वपूर्ण था। भारत में ब्रिटिश न्याय प्रणाली की स्थापना इसी काल में हुई। कानून का शासन तथा न्यायपालिका की स्वतंत्रता इस प्रणाली की विशेषताएँ थीं। कानून के शासन से अभिप्राय था- निरंकुश शक्ति के स्थान पर नियंत्रित और निश्चित विधि की सर्वोच्चता एवं प्रधानता तथा कानून के समक्ष समस्त व्यक्तियों और वर्गों की बराबरी। स्वतंत्र न्याय व्यवस्था का अर्थ था- न्याय व्यवस्था में कार्यपालिका का हस्तक्षेप न होना तथा न्यायाधीशों की सुरक्षा। ये विचार इंग्लैण्ड में 18वीं शताब्दी में संविधान का अंग बन चुके थे। भारत में ये सिद्धान्त लागू होते ही न्यायपालिका और कार्यपालिका के बीच अनेक विवाद उठ खड़े हुए। सर्वोच्च न्यायालय की स्थापना से ये झगड़े और अधिक बढ़ गये। इन्हें रोकने के लिए विशेष कानून बनाये गये। भारत में उठने वाले विवाद विदेशी शासन के परिणाम थे। ये विवाद मुख्यतः अँग्रेज वकीलों एवं न्यायाधीशों, प्रशासकों और व्यापारियों के बीच थे, जिनमें भारतीयों की भूमिका मूक दर्शक की थी। इन समस्याओं को ध्यान में रखते हुए हेस्टिंग्ज ने प्रशासनिक व्यवस्था को सुधारने का भरसक प्रयत्न किया।

    दीवानी अदालतों की स्थापना

    क्लाइव द्वारा स्थापित द्वैध शासन प्रणाली को समाप्त कर कम्पनी ने दीवानी का उत्तरदायित्व स्वयं ग्रहण कर लिया, जिसमें दीवानी न्याय व्यवस्था भी सम्मिलित थी। उसने मुगल व्यवस्था पर आधारित न्याय प्रणाली को अपनाने का प्रयत्न किया। सम्पूर्ण न्याय व्यवस्था को पुनर्गठित किया गया तथा प्रत्येक अदालत का कार्यक्षेत्र निर्धारित किया गया। सिविल और फौजदारी मामलों के लिये अलग अदालतें थीं। दस रुपये तक के मामलों में प्रधान या मुखिया निर्णय ले सकता था। प्रत्येक जिले में दीवानी अदालत स्थापित की गई जिसकी अध्यक्षता यूरोपीय कलेक्टर करता था। इनमें 500 रुपयों तक के मामलों पर निर्णय किया जाता था। इस दीवानी अदालत में अलग-अलग प्रकार के मामले आते थे, यथा- सम्पत्ति के विवाद, वंशानुगत अधिकार, विवाह, जाति, कर्ज, हिसाब, किराए, साझेदारी, संविदा आदि से सम्बद्ध झगड़े। दीवानी अदालत के ऊपर कलकत्ता में सदर दीवानी अदालत स्थापित की गई। इन सुधारों के साथ ही हेस्टिंग्ज ने मुर्शिदाबाद और पटना की राजस्व कौंसिलें समाप्त कर दीं। इसके बाद भी न्याय प्रणाली पर लगान विभाग का प्रभाव बना रहा। 1774 ई. के बाद यह प्रभाव और अधिक बढ़ गया। जब कलेक्टरों को वापिस बुलाने के बाद छः प्रान्तीय कौंसिलें बनाई गईं तो न्याय व्यवस्था में भ्रष्टाचार बढ़ गया।

    फौजदारी अदालतों की स्थापना

    कम्पनी फौजदारी मामलों में हस्तक्षेप करना नहीं चाहती थीं, क्योंकि इस क्षेत्र में उत्तरदायित्व अधिक था और आय नहीं थी। इसलिए यह क्षेत्र भारतीय अधिकारियों- मुहम्मद रजा खाँ और सिताबराय पर छोड़ दिया गया। इस क्षेत्र में हस्तक्षेप केवल अराजकता रोकने और कानून व्यवस्था बनाये रखने के उद्देश्य से किया जाता था। फौजदारी क्षेत्र में केवल इस्लामी कानून लागू किये गये थे तथा दण्ड भी उन्हीं के आधार पर दिया जाता था। इस व्यवस्था की विरुद्ध अँग्रेज पर्यवेक्षकों को अनेक प्रकार की शिकायतें थीं। अतः हेस्टिंग्ज ने फौजदारी विभाग को सुधारने के उद्देश्य से 1772 ई. में एक नई योजना बनाई। उसने प्रत्येक जिले में फौजदारी अदालत स्थापित की जिसमें काजी, मुफ्ती तथा मौलवी नियुक्त किये गये। सबसे ऊपर सदर निजामत अदालत बनाई गई जिसका संचालन दरोगा-ए-अदालत, प्रधान काजी, प्रधान मुफ्ती तथा तीन मौलवी करते थे। जिला स्तर पर न्याय व्यवस्था, यूरोपीय कलेक्टर द्वारा नियंत्रित थी किन्तु वह स्वयं न्यायालय का सदस्य नहीं था। सदर निजामत अदालत कुछ समय के लिए मुर्शिदाबाद से कलकत्ता लाई गई जिससे उस पर कम्पनी का अधिक नियंत्रण रखा जा सके किन्तु हेस्टिंग्ज ने मुहम्मद रजा खाँ को पुनः नायब नियुक्त किया, जिसने गवर्नर जनरल की अनुमति से फौजदारी अदालतों का पुनर्गठन किया। कुल मिलाकर 23 जिला फौजदारी अदालतें बनाई गईं। बड़े जिलों के प्रमुख नगरों में फौजदारी थाने स्थापित किये गये। फौजदारी अदालतों और थानों के साथ जेलें भी बनाई गईं किन्तु हेस्टिंग्ज का यह प्रयोग भी सफल नहीं माना जा सकता, क्योंकि अदालतों को अपना निर्णय लागू करने के लिए न तो पर्याप्त अधिकार दिये गये और न साधन।

    कलकत्ता में सर्वोच्च न्यायालय की स्थापना

    वारेन हेस्टिंग्ज के काल में रेगुलेटिंग एक्ट द्वारा कलकत्ता में सर्वोच्च न्यायालय स्थापित किया गया। इसका कार्यक्षेत्र कलकत्ता नगर के नागरिकों तक सीमित था। इस न्यायालय में बाहर के मामलों की सुनवाई तभी हो सकती थी, जब दोनों पक्ष इसके लिए तैयार हों। कलकत्ता सर्वोच्च न्यायालय में ब्रिटिश कानून लागू होते थे जबकि सदर दीवानी और सदर निजामत में मुस्लिम या हिन्दू कानून लागू होते थे। सदर दीवानी और सदर निजामत न्यायालयों के कार्यक्षेत्र सर्वोच्च न्यायालय से टकराते थे जिसे सुलझाने के लिए हेस्टिंग्ज ने इम्पे को सदर दीवानी अदालत का मुख्य न्यायाधीश नियुक्त किया जो सर्वोच्च न्यायालय का भी प्रधान न्यायाधीश था। कम्पनी के संचालकों द्वारा आपत्ति करने के कारण 1782 ई. में इम्पे ने त्याग-पत्र दे दिया। इस प्रकार न्याय व्यवस्था में भी द्वैधता चलती रही। हेस्टिंग्ज ने अपने शासन काल के अंतिम वर्षों में न्याय व्यवस्था में सुधार का एक और प्रयत्न किया। उसने एक न्यायिक योजना प्रस्तुत की तथा उसके द्वारा न्याय और भू-राजस्व के कार्यों को पृथक् करने का प्रयत्न किया किन्तु यह प्रयोग बहुत ही कम समय तक चला। इस काल में हिन्दू विधि संहिता तथा मुस्लिम विधि का अँग्रेजी भाषा में अनुवाद किया गया। 1781 ई. की संहिता द्वारा न्याय व्यवस्था का केन्द्रीयकरण किया गया। इससे पुरानी न्याय प्रणाली की सरलता समाप्त हो गई और पाश्चात्य सिद्धान्तों के प्रभाव से जटिलता बढ़ गई। अब न्याय एवं कानून एक ऐसी विशेष व्यवस्था बन गया जिसका संचालन केवल वकील ही कर सकते थे।

    कार्नवालिस के न्यायिक सुधार

    सितम्बर 1786 में लॉर्ड कार्नवालिस गवर्नर जनरल बनकर भारत आया। उसने कानूनी विशेषज्ञ सर जॉन विलियम की सहायता से न्यायिक सुधार किये। कार्नवालिस से पहले, दीवानी न्यायाधीश केवल न्यायिक कार्य करते थे, उनका लगान वसूली से कोई सम्बन्ध नहीं था। 1786 ई. में संचालक मण्डल ने आदेश दिया कि मजिस्ट्रेट, कलेक्टर और जज के कार्य एक ही व्यक्ति द्वारा किये जायें। अतः जून 1787 में कार्नवालिस ने इन तीनों पदों को एक साथ मिला दिया।

    राजस्व न्यायालयों की समाप्ति

    1793 ई. में भूमि का स्थायी बन्दोबस्त लागू किया गया। इसके साथ ही भू-राजस्व वसूल करने के काम को पुनः न्याय से अलग कर दिया गया। कार्नवालिस की 1793 ई. की योजना द्वारा समस्त राजस्व न्यायालय समाप्त कर दिये गये। कलेक्टरों से न्यायिक अधिकार छीन लिए गये तथा सम्पूर्ण दीवानी न्यायालयों का श्रेणीकरण कर दिया गया।

    मुंसिफ अदालतें

    नए न्याय प्रबन्ध में 50 रुपये तक के मामलों को मुंसिफ अदालतों में निबटाया जाने लगा। इसके ऊपर रजिस्ट्रार अदालतें थीं जिन्हें 200 रुपये तक के मामलों की सुनवाई करने का अधिकार था। इनमें यूरोपीय न्यायाधीश नियुक्त किये जाते थे।

    जिला अदालतें

    रजिस्ट्रार अदालतों में दिये गये निर्णयों के विरुद्ध अपील नगर या जिला अदालतों में होती थी जहाँ यूरोपीय न्यायाधीश, भारतीय अधिकारियों की सहायता से मुकदमों की सुनवाई करते थे।

    प्रान्तीय अदालतें

    जिला अदालतों के ऊपर कलकत्ता, मुर्शिदाबाद, ढाका और पटना में चार प्रान्तीय अदालतें बनाई गईं। कुछ मामलों में ये न्यायालय प्रथम अधिकार क्षेत्र का कार्य भी करते थे। यहाँ यूरोपीय न्यायाधीश की अध्यक्षता में 1000 रुपये तक के मामले सुने जाते थे।

    सदर दीवानी अदालत

    प्रान्तीय अदालतों के ऊपर कलकत्ता में सदर दीवानी अदालत थी जिसमें गवर्नर जनरल और उसकी कौंसिल के सदस्य निर्णय लेते थे। पाँच हजार रुपये से अधिक के मामलों की अपील किंग-इन-कांउसिल के समक्ष की जा सकती थी।

    फौजदारी न्यायालायों में सुधार

    कार्नवालिस द्वारा फौजदारी न्यायालायों में भी कई सुधार किये गये। हेस्टिंग्ज मुगल न्याय प्रणाली को हटाने के पक्ष में नहीं था, वह मुगल प्रणाली के दोषों को ही दूर करना चाहता था। दूसरी ओर कार्नवालिस व्यापक सुधार लाने के पक्ष में था। फौजदारी अदालतों में सुधार लाने के उद्देश्य से 3 दिसम्बर 1790 को एक विस्तृत मसौदा तैयार किया गया। इसमें मुसलमान न्यायाधिकारियों के मार्ग-दर्शन के लिए एक नियम बनाया गया जिसके अनुसार हत्या के मामलों में हत्या के अस्त्र या ढंग की बजाय हत्यारे की मंशा पर अधिक बल दिया गया। मृतक के अभिभावकों की इच्छा से क्षमा करना अथवा रक्त का मूल्य निर्धारित करना बन्द कर दिया गया। यह निश्चय किया गया कि साक्षी के धर्म का, वाद पर कोई प्रभाव नहीं होगा। इस्लामी कानून में मुसलमानों की हत्या के मामलों में अन्य धर्म वाले साक्षी नहीं माने जाते थे।

    सदर निजामत की पुनः स्थापना

    कार्नवालिस ने न्याय संगठन में भी कई सुधार किये। मुहम्मद रजा खाँ के पद को समाप्त करके कलकत्ता में पुनः सदर निजामत अदालत स्थापित की गई।

    सर्किट अदालतें

    गवर्नर जनरल और कौंसिल के अधीन जिला फौजदारी अदालतें समाप्त करके चार चलती-फिरती अदालतें (सर्किट अदालतें) स्थापित की गईं। इनके लिए साल में दो बार आन्तरिक प्रदेशों का दौरा करना आवश्यक था। केवल यूरोपियन व्यक्ति ही इनकी अध्यक्षता कर सकते थे। इन्हें मृत्यु दण्ड देने का अधिकार था परन्तु उसकी पुष्टि सदर निजामत अदालत से होनी आवश्यक थी। गवर्नर जनरल को क्षमादान का अधिकार था।

    कार्नवालिस कोड

    कार्नवालिस ने जो सुधार किये उन्हें कार्यान्वित करने के लिए एक संहिता भी तैयार करवाई गई जिसे कार्नवालिस कोड कहा जाता है। कार्नवालिस कोड की दो मुख्य विशेषताएँ थीं- (1.) निजामत अदालतों में अँग्रेज न्यायाधीशों की नियुक्ति तथा (2.) न्याय व्यवस्था को प्रशासन से अलग करना। कार्नवालिस के आने के पूर्व जिले में कलेक्टर, राजस्व प्रशासन का मुख्य अधिकारी था तथा जिले का प्रधान न्यायाधीश भी। एक ओर वह राजस्व का निर्धारण करता था और उसे वसूल करता था, वहीं दूसरी ओर उसी के राजस्व निर्धारण व वसूली के निर्णय के विरुद्ध न्यायाधीश के रूप में मुकदमों की सुनवाई भी करता था। कार्नवालिस कोड द्वारा कलेक्टर को केवल राजस्व निर्धारण व उसकी वसूली का कार्य सौंपा गया और न्यायिक कार्य दूसरे अधिकारी को सौंप दिये गये। कार्नवालिस कोड लागू होने से पहले, फौजदारी मामलों में मुसलमानों के विरुद्ध हिन्दुओं की गवाही को स्वीकार नहीं किया जाता था किन्तु कार्नवालिस कोड में यह स्पष्ट नियम बना दिया कि गवाही देने के लिये धर्म के आधार पर किसी व्यक्ति पर प्रतिबन्ध नहीं होगा। कार्नवालिस कोड में अंग-भंग, सूली पर चढ़ाना आदि अमानुषिक दण्ड समाप्त कर दिये गये तथा कठोर कारावास की सजा देने की व्यवस्था की गई। वकीलों को लाईसेन्स देने की व्यवस्था की गई। लाइसेंस प्राप्त वकील ही वकालत कर सकता था। वकीलों की फीस भी निश्चित कर दी गई। यदि कोई वकील निर्धारित से अधिक फीस लेता था तो उसे वकालत के लिए अयोग्य घोषित किया जा सकता था। कार्नवालिस कोड में व्यवस्था की गई कि यदि कम्पनी के अधिकारी गैर-कानूनी कार्य करें तो उन पर भी मुकदमा चलाया जाये। ऐसे मामलों में केवल ऐसे अँग्रेज जज ही जाँच कर सकते थे, जो सरकार से प्रत्यक्ष अथवा परोक्ष रूप में आर्थिक लाभ प्राप्त न करते हों।

    कार्नवालिस की न्याय-प्रणाली पश्चिमी न्यायिक धारणाओं पर आधारित थी। इसमें राजाओं के निजी कानूनों तथा धार्मिक कानूनों का स्थान धर्म-निरपेक्ष कानून ने ले लिया। विधि की सर्वोच्चता स्थापित की गई। कार्नवालिस कोड के तात्कालिक परिणाम लाभदायक सिद्ध नहीं हुए। नये कानून इतने जटिल थे कि साधारण लोग इन्हें समझ नहीं पाते थे। इस प्रणाली में न्याय प्राप्त करने में इतना समय लगता था और यह इतना महँगा पड़ता था कि यह निर्धन लोगों के योग्य नहीं था। वकीलों की चालबाजियों के कारण मुकदमेबाजी बहुत बढ़ गई। झूठे गवाह बनाये जाने लगे, न्यायालय का काम बढ़ने से निर्णय सुनाने में बहुत समय लगने लगा। स्वयं कार्नवालिस ने स्वीकार किया कि उसके काल में 60,000 से अधिक मुकदमे न्यायालयों में फँसे पड़े थे। इस प्रणाली में, परम्परागत न्याय प्रणाली के पंचायत, जमींदार, काजी, फौजदार तथा निजामत आदि व्यवस्थाओं एवं अधिकारियों का स्थान यूरोपीय न्यायाधीशों ने ले लिया जिन्हें भारतीय रीति-रिवाजों तथा परम्पराओं की जानकारी नहीं थी। भारतीय न्यायाधीशों के स्थान पर अँग्रेज न्यायधीशों की नियुक्ति करना इस व्यवस्था का सबसे बड़ा दोष था। कार्नवालिस का एकमात्र उद्देश्य यह था कि भारतीयों के स्थान पर अँग्रेज न्यायाधीशों की नियुक्ति करके कम्पनी की सर्वोच्चता स्पष्ट कर दी जाये। इतिहासकार मिल ने स्वीकार किया है कि अँग्रेजी न्यायालयों से अपराधों की संख्या बढ़ी तथा लोगों में भय व आंतक फैल गया।

    कार्नवालिस कोड के दोषों को दूर करने के लिए कम्पनी सरकार ने 1793 ई. से 1813 ई. के बीच अनेक कदम उठाये। छोटे मुकदमों को शीघ्र निपटाने के आदेश दिये गये। न्यायिक अधिकारियों को प्रोत्साहित करने के लिए उनके वेतन बढ़ाये गये। इन अधिकारियों को हेलीबरी कॉलेज में प्रशिक्षण देने की व्यवस्था की गई तथा उन्हें भारतीय भाषाओं, न्याय और सरकारी कानूनों की जानकारी दी गई। साथ ही न्याय प्रणाली में केन्द्रीयकरण करने के लिए विभिन्न योजनाएँ बनाई जाने लगीं।

    कार्नवालिस कोड का विरोध

    मद्रास प्रेसीडेन्सी में जब कार्नवालिस कोड लागू करने का प्रश्न उठा तो टॉमस मुनरो ने इसका विरोध किया। उसके विचार में कार्नवालिस प्रणाली कृत्रिम और विदेशी थी जिसने परम्परागत संस्थाओं को हटा दिया था। मुनरो, ग्राम पंचायतों एवं सरपंचों को दीवानी और फौजदारी के छोटे मामलों में सुनवाई के अधिकार देकर उन्हें प्रोत्साहित करता रहा। जिला प्रशासन में भी परम्परागत ढंग से कार्यपालिका को शक्तिशाली बनाया गया। कलेक्टर को मजिस्ट्रेट और पुलिस अधिकारों के साथ किराये और सीमा सम्बन्धी झगड़ों को निपटाने का अधिकार दिया गया। दिल्ली के रेजीडेन्ट मेटकॉफ ने भी इसी व्यवस्था को अपनाया। इसमें परम्परागत मुगल संस्थाओं को बनाये रखा गया तथा राज्य शक्तियों में केन्द्रीयकरण लाया गया।

    कार्नवालिस के जाने के बाद यह प्रयत्न किया गया कि लोगों को उपलब्ध न्याय की सुविधा में कमी कर दी जाये। इसलिए 1795 ई. में मुकदमा दायर करते समय धन जमा कराने की पुरानी प्रणाली पुनः आरम्भ की गई तथा स्टाम्प पेपर का प्रयोग अनिवार्य कर दिया गया। 1797 ई. में अपील की सुविधाएँ भी कम कर दी गईं। यद्यपि न्याय को दुर्लभ एवं अधिक महँगा बना दिया गया फिर भी मुकदमों की संख्या बढ़ती ही गई। लोगों की जान-माल की सुरक्षा का भय ज्यों-का-त्यों बना रहा। अतः जान-माल की सुरक्षा के लिए 1807 ई. में जमींदारों को पुनः दायित्व सौंपना पड़ा।

    लॉर्ड हेस्टिंग्ज के न्यायिक सुधार

    1813 ई. में लॉर्ड हेस्टिंग्ज गवर्नर जनरल बनकर भारत आया जिसने प्रचलित व्यवस्था में संशोधन किया। 1814 ई. में प्रत्येक थाने में एक मुंसिफ की नियुक्ति की गई जो 64 रुपये तक के मामले निपटा सकता था। प्रत्येक जिले में एक सदर अमीन की नियुक्ति की गई जो 150 रुपये तक के मामलों की सुनवाई कर सकता था। सदर अमीन के निर्णय के विरुद्ध अपील दीवानी अदालत में तथा यहाँ से अपील प्रान्तीय न्यायालय में की जा सकती थी। जो मुकदमे सीधे दीवानी अदालत में दायर होते थे, उनकी अपील सदर दीवानी अदालत में की जा सकती थी। कार्य का बोझ कम करने तथा कार्य प्रणाली को सरल बनाने की दृष्टि से कुछ मामलों में अपील करने पर प्रतिबन्ध लगा दिया गया और कुछ मामलों में केवल एक बार अपील करने की सुविधा दी गई। 1821 ई. में मुंसिफ को 150 रुपये तक के मामले तथा सदर अमीन को 500 रुपये तक के मामले सुनने का अधिकार दिया गया। दीवानी अदालतों के रजिस्ट्रार को 50 रुपये तक के मामले तथा विशेष परिस्थिति में दीवानी अदालतों द्वारा प्रेषित 500 रुपये तक के मामलों की सुनवाई करने का अधिकार दिया गया। यहाँ से अपील सीधे ही प्रान्तीय न्यायालय में की जा सकती थी। 500 रुपये से ऊपर के मामले जिला दीवानी अदालतों में तथा 5,000 रुपये से ऊपर के मामले सीधे प्रान्तीय न्यायालय में दायर किये जा सकते थे। सदर दीवानी अदालत, कोई मुकदमा जिला दीवानी अदालत से प्रान्तीय अपील न्यायालय में स्थानान्तरित कर सकती थी। लॉर्ड हेस्टिंग्ज ने कलेक्टर और मजिस्ट्रेट के पद को पुनः मिला दिया जिसे कार्नवालिस ने स्थायी बन्दोबस्त के बाद पृथक् कर दिया था। कार्नवालिस कोड में भी महत्त्वपूर्ण संशोधन किये गये। मद्रास व बम्बई में भारतीय जजों के वेतन में वृद्धि की गई ताकि वे ईमानदारी से कार्य करें। यद्यपि बोर्ड ऑफ कन्ट्रोल ने भारत में पुनः प्राचीन संस्थाओं को स्थापित करने तथा पंचायतों को पुनर्जीवित करने की अनुशंसा की थी, किन्तु इन अनुशंसाओं को कार्यान्वित नहीं किया गया।


    लॉर्ड विलियम बैंटिक के न्यायिक सुधार

    बैंटिक के आने के समय तक भी न्याय व्यवस्था में अनेक दोष थे। कम्पनी ने अब तक भारत में विशाल क्षेत्र प्राप्त कर लिया था तथा न्याय प्रशासन का मुख्यालय कलकत्ता में था। विभिन्न भागों से कलकत्ता की दूरी अधिक होने के कारण न्याय प्रशासन ठीक से नहीं चल रहा था। अपील एवं भ्रमण की चार अदालतें अधिक खर्चीली थीं और इनका कोई विशेष लाभ भी नहीं था। इन पर मकदमों का बोझ भी अधिक था, जिससे शीघ्र न्याय प्रदान करना संभव नहीं था। डिवीजनल न्यायालयों व प्रान्तीय अपील न्यायालयों में अकुशलता एवं अनियमितताएँ व्याप्त थीं जिनके कारण न्यायालयों में मुकदमों के ढेर लगे हुए थे। इन मुकदमों के अभियुक्त महीनों तक जेल में पड़े रहते थे।

    कार्नवालिस ने भारतीयों को न्यायालय के उच्च पदों व उत्तरदायित्वों से अलग रखा था जिससे भारतीयों में रोष था। न्यायालय की भाषा फारसी थी तथा मुकदमा दर्ज करने वाले को अपनी भाषा में बात कहने का अधिकार नहीं था। बैंटिक ने इन दोषों को दूर करने का प्रयास किया। ऐसा करने का एक कारण यह भी था कि ब्रिटिश सरकार, चार्टर एक्ट-1833 ई. पर विचार करने जा रही थी जिस पर कम्पनी का भविष्य निर्भर करता था। इसलिए कम्पनी के प्रशासनिक दोषों को दूर करना आवश्यक था, ताकि संसद को शिकायत करने का अवसर न मिल सके।

    न्यायिक सुधार, व्यापक सुधारों का केवल एक भाग था। बैंटिक ने न्यायिक सुधारों के द्वारा अपील एवं भ्रमण की चार अदालतें समाप्त कर दीं। साथ ही दंड विधान की कठोरता को कम कर दिया। अपराधियों को कोड़े लगवाने की प्रथा समाप्त कर दी। यह सुधार बैंथम की उस अवधारणा पर आधारित था कि अपराधी को सजा, सुधारने के लिए दी जानी चाहिए, बदले के लिये नहीं। उसने कमिशनरों के फौजदारी अधिकार जिला न्यायाधीश को सौंप दिये और जिला न्यायाधीश ने अपने मजिस्ट्रेट के अधिकार कलेक्टर के लिए छोड़ दिये। मजिस्ट्रेट को दो वर्ष की सश्रम कारावास की सजा देने का अधिकार दिया गया। इसके विरुद्ध सिविल न्यायालय में अपील की जा सकती थी।

    कलेक्टरों को लगान सम्बन्धी मामले निपटाने के अधिकार दिये गये। इसकी अपील सिविल न्यायालयों में की जा सकती थी। अपील का मुकदमा स्वयं कलेक्टर के विरुद्ध होता था। 1831 ई. में बैंटिक ने जिला एवं सत्र न्यायालय स्थापित किया। 1831 ई. में ही भारतीयों को सदर अमीन के पद पर नियुक्त किया गया जो जिला व शहरी न्यायालय के विरुद्ध अपीलें सुन सकते थे। न्यायिक क्षेत्र में किसी भारतीय को दिया जाने वाला सदर अमीन का पद सर्वोच्च था किन्तु यूरोपियन अथवा अमेरिकन से सम्बन्धित मुकदमे, मुन्सिफ या सदर अमीन की अदालत में नहीं सुने जा सकते थे।

    कम्पनी राज्य का विस्तार धीरे-धीरे पश्चिम की ओर होता जा रहा था। इसलिए आगरा प्रान्त बनाया गया जो कलकत्ता से काफी दूर था। न्याय पाने के लिए कलकत्ता जाने में समय और धन बर्बाद होते थे। इसलिए आगरा में ही अपील अदालत की स्थापना की गई। इसी उद्देश्य से इलाहाबाद में सदर दीवानी और सदर निजामत अदालतें स्थापित की गईं, जिससे दिल्ली और उत्तर पश्चिमी प्रान्त में आसानी से न्याय प्रशासन चल सके। अदालतों में फारसी भाषा के स्थान पर प्रान्तीय भाषाओं का प्रयोग होने लगा। बंगाल में जूरी प्रणाली आरम्भ की गई, ताकि यूरोपियन जजों को भारतीयों की सहायता उपलब्ध हो सके। 1832 ई. के नियम में यह भी कहा गया कि यूरोपियन जज किसी मामले को प्रतिष्ठित भारतीयों की पंचायत के पास भेज सकेंगे और पंचायत मामले की जाँच कर अपनी रिपोर्ट जजों के पास भेजेगी। जज अपने लिये भारतीय सहायक नियुक्त कर सकते थे, जो प्रत्येक मामले में अपनी अलग राय दे सकते थे।

    न्याय क्षेत्र में सुधार कार्यक्रम को लागू करने में लॉर्ड मैकाले का महत्त्वपूर्ण योगदान था। 1833 ई. के चार्टर एक्ट में स्पष्ट कहा गया था कि विधि-प्रणाली के दोष समाप्त किये जाने चाहिए। सुधार लाना इसलिए भी आवश्यक हो गया था कि इस एक्ट द्वारा ब्रिटिश नागरिकों को भारत में सम्पत्ति खरीदने-बेचने के पूर्ण अधिकार दे दिये गये थे जिसकी भारत में कोई कानूनी व्यवस्था नहीं थी। इस समस्या का मैकाले के पास एक ही समाधान था- विधि का संहिताकरण। संहिताकरण के कार्य में मैकाले को प्रिंसेप सहित अनेक प्रशासकों के विरोध का सामना करना पड़ा। बहुमत मिलेट के विधि संग्रह के पक्ष में था किन्तु मैकाले ने बड़ी चतुराई से इस विवाद को विधि आयोग के लिए छोड़ दिया। बैंटिक ने विधि आयोग का अध्यक्ष मैकाले को ही बनाया। संहिताकरण कार्य में उसने व्यवहारिकता और आवश्यकता को प्राथमिकता दी। मैकाले की सबसे बड़ी सफलता उसकी नई दंड संहिता थी।

    विलियम बैंण्टिक के बाद न्यायिक सुधार

    लॉर्ड डलहौजी के शासनकाल में 1853 ई. के चार्टर एक्ट के समय विधि-संहिता का प्रश्न पुनः उठाया गया और दूसरा विधि आयोग बनाया गया। इसके परिणाम स्वरूप 1859 से 1861 ई. के बीच दण्डविधि, सिविल कार्य विधि तथा दण्ड प्रक्रिया पारित की गई। इन सुधारों ने सम्पूर्ण भारत के लिये एक विधि प्रणाली प्रदान की। विभिन्न क्षेत्रों में थोड़ा-बहुत अन्तर बना रहा। दूसरी ओर यूरोपीय अधिकारियों की आवश्यकताओं को पूरा करने के लिये न्याय संगठन में परिवर्तन करने की बात भी उठाई गई जिससे भारतीय न्याय प्रणाली, ब्रिटिश न्याय प्रणाली के अनुकूल होती गई। 1861 ई. में भारतीय उच्च न्यायालय अधिनियम द्वारा पुराने सर्वोच्च न्यायालय और सदर अदालतों को समाप्त कर कलकत्ता, मद्रास और बम्बई में उच्च न्यायालयों की स्थापना की गई।

    इलाहाबाद उच्च न्यायालय की स्थापना

    1866 ई. में एक और उच्च न्यायालय आगरा में स्थापित किया गया जिसे 1875 ई. में इलाहाबाद स्थानान्तरित कर दिया गया। बाद में लाहौर और पटना में भी ऐसे ही उच्च न्यायालय स्थापित किये गये।

    संघीय न्यायालय की स्थापना

    इस न्याय प्रणाली में अन्तिम महत्त्वपूर्ण सुधार 1935 ई. में किया गया जब संघीय न्यायालय की स्थापना की गई। इसने उच्चतम न्यायालय का स्थान ग्रहण कर लिया। कहने को यह भारत का सर्वोच्च न्यायालय था किंतु वास्तविक अर्थों में यह सर्वोच्च न्यायालय नहीं था क्योंकि अनेक मामलों में सर्वोच्च न्यायलय के निर्णय के विरुद्ध लन्दन स्थित प्रिवी कौंसिल में अपील की जा सकती थी।

    *****THE END*****

  • आधुनिक भारत का इतिहा"/> आधुनिक भारत का इतिहा"> आधुनिक भारत का इतिहा">
    Share On Social Media:
  • भारत में पश्चिमी शिक्षा का प्रसार

     21.08.2017
    भारत में पश्चिमी शिक्षा का प्रसार

    आधुनिक भारत का इतिहास - अध्याय: 12 


    प्राचीन भारतीय शिक्षा पद्धति

    प्रचीन भारत में शिक्षा प्रणाली का विकास आध्यात्मिक आवश्यकताओं के कारण हुआ था। इस कारण शिक्षा का स्वरूप व्यावसायिक नहीं था। शिक्षा का विकास ऋषियों और मुनियों के आश्रमों में हुआ था इस कारण जन-साधारण की शिक्षा का दायित्व राज्य पर नहीं था। शिक्षा का उद्देश्य परम तत्त्व की प्राप्ति अर्थात् सत्य की खोज था। इस कारण भारतीय शिक्षा का मूल आधार आस्था, विश्वास, विनय एवं अभ्यास के चार पायों पर खड़ा था। छात्र को अपने पिता का घर छोड़कर गुरु के आश्रम में रहकर शिक्षा ग्रहण करनी होती थी। उन्हें वेद, वेदांग, उपनिषद, ज्योतिष, कर्मकाण्ड, आयुर्वेद, धनुर्वेद, शिल्पवेद एवं योग आदि की शिक्षा दी जाती थी। छात्रों से कोई शुल्क नहीं लिया जाता था। गुरुकुल में रहने वाले ब्राह्मण परिवारों एवं उनके शिष्यों का निर्वहन राजाओं, सामंतों तथा श्रेष्ठि परिवारों द्वारा दी गई सहायता से होता था। शिक्षा पूर्णतः स्वतंत्र थी। राजा भी गुरुकुल की व्यवस्था में हस्तक्षेप नहीं करता था। शिक्षा का माध्यम देवभाषा संस्कृत था जिसमें सम्पूर्ण धार्मिक एवं सांसारिक ज्ञान उपलब्ध था। ब्राह्मण कन्याएं अपने पिता के आश्रम में ज्ञान प्राप्त करती थीं। राजपुत्रियां राजप्रासादों में शिक्षा प्राप्त करती थीं, उन्हें घुड़सवारी, रथ संचालन, धनुष विद्या तथा तलवार चलाना सिखाया जाता था। बड़े श्रेष्ठियों की पुत्रियां घर पर रहकर विभिन्न कलाओं का ज्ञान प्राप्त करती थीं। उन्हें नारी जीवन को सुखमय बनाने का ज्ञान दिया जाता था। अन्य वर्गों की लड़कियों की औपचारिक शिक्षा का प्रबंध नहीं था।
    मध्यकाल में शिक्षा

    मुसलमानों के भारत आगमन के पश्चात्, परम्परागत हिन्दू शिक्षण पद्धति में बड़ा परिवर्तन आया। दूरस्थ गुरुकुलों का स्थान स्थानीय पोसालों एवं चटशालाओं ने ले लिया जिनमें विद्यार्थी अपने गुरु को निर्धारित शुल्क देते थे। लड़कियों के लिये घरों से निकलना और अधिक प्रतिबंधित हो गया। जनसामान्य के लिए गांवों और कस्बों में पण्डितों द्वारा छोटे-छोटे विद्यालय खोले गये जिनमें बच्चों को भारतीय भाषाओं में पढ़ना, लिखना और प्रारम्भिक गणित करना सिखाया जाता था। साथ में धर्मिक शिक्षा भी दी जाती थी। इन विद्यालयों से प्रायः व्यापारी-पुत्र लाभ उठाते थे। ब्राह्मणों एवं क्षत्रियों के बच्चे भी इन विद्यालयों में पढ़ते थे।

    मुसलमानों ने अपने बच्चों की शिक्षा का प्रबंध मस्जिदों में किया जहाँ मौलवी, मुस्लिम बच्चों की बहुत थोड़ी संख्या को दीनी इल्म देते थे। आगे चलकर मदरसों की व्यवस्था आरम्भ हुई जिनमें मुख्यतः मुस्लिम बच्चे पढ़ते थे। हिन्दू बच्चे भी फारसी सीखने के लिये मदरसों में जाते थे क्योंकि राज्य-कार्य की भाषा फारसी थी।

    उच्च हिन्दू शिक्षा, विद्यालयों, आश्रमों, चतुष्पाठी आदि संस्थाओं में दी जाती थी, जिसमें ब्राह्मण शिक्षक, अत्यंन्त सादा जीवन व्यतीत करते हुए अध्यात्म, दर्शन, कर्मकाण्ड, संहिताओं एवं स्मृतियों का अध्ययन-अध्यापन करते थे। अन्य जातियों के लिए धर्मिक आधार पर उच्च शिक्षा निषिद्ध थी। इस प्रकार अँग्रेजों के आने के पहले हिन्दुओं में शिक्षा समाज के अत्यंत सीमित वर्ग को ही उपलब्ध थी। उच्च शिक्षा पर केवल ब्राह्मणों का अधिकार था। उनकी सम्पूर्ण शिक्षा हिन्दू संस्कृति के मूल सिद्धांतों पर अवलम्बित थी, जो आश्रम व्यवस्था एवं वर्ण व्यवस्था में विश्वास करना, वेदों की महानता में विश्वास करना और वेदों की व्याख्या करने वाले ब्राह्मणों की क्षमता में विश्वास करना सिखाती थी।

    इस शिक्षा के माध्यम से बच्चों को अपने माता-पिता, गुरुजन, अतिथि एवं राजा के प्रति सम्मान की भावना दी जाती थी। यह शिक्षा व्यक्ति को समाज की संरचना के अनुकूल बनाने का साधन थी तथा भारतीय संस्कृति की गौरवपूर्ण परम्परा थी। इसमें यह दोष अवश्य था कि सामान्यतः स्त्रियां, श्रमिक जातियाँ और किसान शिक्षा से वंचित थे।

    मुस्लिम शिक्षा, हिन्दू शिक्षा से अलग थी। मुस्लिम जनता में शिक्षा पर किसी एक वर्ग का एकाधिकार नहीं था फिर भी बहुत कम मुस्लिम बालक मदरसों में पढ़ते थे जहाँ उन्हें कुरान एवं उसके सिद्धांतों की जानकारी दी जाती थी। उच्च शिक्षा का माध्यम अरबी भाषा थी, क्योंकि कुरान की रचना इसी भाषा में हुई थी, फिर भी कुछ मदरसों में कुरान के साथ-साथ फारसी और अन्य विषयों की शिक्षा भी दी जाती थी। दोनों समुदायों की शिक्षा में एक भारी अन्तर यह था कि हिन्दू विद्यालय समाज के विशिष्ट वर्ग के लिए थे, जबकि मुस्लिम मदरसे सबके लिए खुले थे, जो एक पैगम्बर में विश्वास करते थे।

    देश में राजनीतिक एवं प्रशासनिक अराजकता अपने चरम पर थी, इस कारण हिन्दुओं एवं मुसलमानों, दोनों वर्गों में शिक्षा पतनोन्मुख थी। देश में मुद्रित पुस्तकों का अभाव था। स्वेदशी विद्यालय, चाहे वे ब्राह्मणों द्वारा चलाये जाते हों या फिर मौलवियों द्वारा, बच्चों की बड़ी संख्या को शिक्षित करने में असफल थे। लड़कियों के लिए तो शिक्षा का प्रावधान ही नहीं था।
    ईसाई मिशनरियों द्वारा आरंभिक शैक्षणिक कार्य

    पुर्तगाली मिशनरियों के प्रयास

    यूरोप से भारत आने वाली जातियों में सर्वप्रथम पुर्तगाली थे। पुर्तगाली मुख्य रूप से दो उद्देश्य लेकर भारत आये थे- (1.) धर्म-प्रचार और (2.) व्यापार। धर्म-प्रचार के लिए जनता को बाइबिल का ज्ञान कराना आवश्यक था। इसलिये 1542 ई. में पुर्तगाली पादरी सेण्ट फ्रांसिस जेवियर भारत आया। वह लोगों को बाइबिल के उपदेश देता था तथा ईसाई धर्म स्वीकार करने के लिए प्रेरित करता था। उसने अनेक स्कूल भी खोले। 1575 से 1580 ई. के बीच उसने बम्बई के पास बान्द्रा, गोआ के पास चौल तथा कुछ अन्य स्थानों पर कॉलेज खोले जिनमें बाइबिल, लेटिन भाषा, पुर्तगाली व्याकरण, तर्कशास्त्र तथा पुर्तगाली संगीत की शिक्षा दी जाती थी। भारत आने वाला दूसरा प्रमुख पादरी रॉबर्ट डे नोबिल था। इन दोनों पादरियों ने पश्चिमी भारत में ईसाई धर्म तथा शिक्षा का प्रसार किया। पुर्तगाली पादरियों ने ही भारत में छापाखाने स्थापित किये। सर्वप्रथम उन्होंने ही बाइबिल का भारतीय भाषाओं में अनुवाद करके उसे पुस्तकों के रूप में छापकर साधारण जनता के बीच वितरित किया। इसीलिए पुर्तगालियों को भारत में आधुनिक शिक्षा प्रणाली का जन्मदाता माना जाना चाहिए।

    नीदरलैण्ड वासियों के प्रयास

    यूरोप से भारत आने दूसरे यूरोपीय, नीदरलैण्ड-वासी डच थे। उन्होंने अपनी कम्पनी के कर्मचारियों के बच्चों को शिक्षा देने के लिए भारत में कई पाठशालाएं खोलीं जिनमें कुछ भारतीय बच्चों को भी प्रवेश दिया गया। उनका मुख्य उद्देश्य व्यापार करना था किंतु अग्रजों से प्रतिद्वंद्विता के कारण उन्हें शीघ्र ही भारत छोड़ देना पड़ा। उनके जाते ही उनकी शिक्षा व्यवस्था भी समाप्त हो गई।

    फ्रांस वासियों के प्रयास

    सत्रहवीं शताब्दी के प्रारम्भिक दशकों में फ्रैंच ईस्ट इण्डिया कम्पनी ने अपनी व्यापारिक कोठियाँ चन्द्रनगर, माही, यनाम, कारोकल और पाण्डीचेरी के निकट स्थापित कीं। इन कोठियों में काम करने वाले फ्रैंच अधिकारियों के बच्चों के लिये उन्होंने फ्रैंच स्कूलों की स्थापना की। पुर्तगालियों की भांति उन्होंने भी अपने स्कूलों में स्थानीय भाषाओं की शिक्षा की व्यवस्था की। इन पाठशालाओं में भारतीय अध्यापकों को नियुक्त किया जाता था तथा भारतीय छात्रों को भी प्रवेश दिया जाता था जिन्हें भोजन, कपड़े और पुस्तकें निःशुल्क देकर स्कूल में आने के लिये प्रोत्साहित किया जाता था। उन्नीसवीं शताब्दी के प्रारम्भिक दशकों में फ्रैंच ईस्ट इण्डिया कम्पनी को अँग्रेजों से परास्त होकर भारत छोड़ना पड़ा तथा फ्रैंच बस्तियों पर अँग्रेजों का अधिकार हो गया और फ्रांसिसी स्कूल भी उनके अधिकार में चले गये।

    डेनमार्क वासियों के प्रयास

    अन्य यूरोपियनों की तरह डेनमार्क के व्यापारियों ने भी दक्षिण भारत में तंजोर के समीप तथा बंगाल में कलकत्ता के समीप सेरामपुर में अपनी कोठियां बनाईं। यद्यपि व्यापारिक या राजनैतिक दृष्टि से इन दोनों स्थानों का कोई महत्त्व नहीं है किन्तु कालान्तर में ये दोनों स्थान मिशनरी शिक्षा के प्रमुख केन्द्र बन गये। इस दिशा में डेनमार्क वासियों का कार्य काफी सफल रहा। इन दोनों स्थानों पर दो जर्मन मिशनरियों ने शिक्षण कार्य किया। उन्होंने बाइबिल का तमिल भाषा में अनुवाद किया। तमिल भाषा का व्याकरण और कोष बनाये तथा एक छापाखाना स्थापित किया। उन्होंने अध्यापकों के प्रशिक्षण के लिए ट्रेनिंग स्कूल खोले। डेनमार्क वासियों का अन्य केन्द्र बंगाल का सेरामपुर (श्रीरामपुर) बेप्टिस्ट मिशनरियों का प्रमुख कार्य क्षेत्र बन गया।
    ईस्ट इण्डिया कम्पनी के आरम्भिक शैक्षणिक कार्य

    दिसम्बर 1600 में ईस्ट इण्डिया कम्पनी की स्थापना हुई। अन्य यूरोपीय कम्पनियों की भांति इसने भी भारत में अपनी कोठियां बनाईं जहाँ काफी संख्या में अँग्रेज व्यापारी तथा कम्पनी के कर्मचारी बस गये। उनकी धार्मिक आवश्यकताओं की पूर्ति के लिए कम्पनी ने इंग्लैण्ड से कुछ पादरी भारत भेजे। इन पादरियों ने कम्पनी के अँग्रेज कर्मचारियों की धार्मिक क्रियाओं सम्बन्धी आवश्यकता की पूर्ति करने के साथ-साथ कम्पनी के भारतीय कर्मचारियों को ईसाई बनाना प्रारम्भ किया।

    नये बनाये गये ईसाइयों तथा कम्पनी के अँग्रेज कर्मचारियों के बच्चों की शिक्षा के लिए कम्पनी ने कई स्कूल खोले। 1698 ई. में इंग्लैण्ड की संसद ने कम्पनी को निर्देशित किया कि कम्पनी अपने प्रत्येक कारखाने पर एक पादरी तथा 500 टन या इससे अधिक वजनी जहाज पर एक चैपलेन (धर्मगुरु) नियुक्त करे। कम्पनी सैनिक स्थानों तथा कारखानों के पास स्कूल खोले। इस आदेश से कम्पनी को धर्म-प्रचार करने तथा स्कूल खोलने के अधिकार मिल गये। इसके बाद कम्पनी ने 1715 ई. में मद्रास, 1718 ई. में बम्बई और 1731 ई. में कलकत्ता में स्कूल स्थापित किये।

    बक्सर विजय के बाद 1765 ई. में ईस्ट इण्डिया कम्पनी को बंगाल, बिहार और उड़ीसा में मालगुजारी वसूल करने के दीवानी अधिकार प्राप्त हुए। इससे कम्पनी एक राजनैतिक शक्ति बन गई। अब तक कम्पनी ने अँग्रेज और एंग्लो-इण्डियन कर्मचारियों के बच्चों की शिक्षा की ओर ही ध्यान दिया था किन्तु 1772 ई. में वारेन हेस्टिंग्ज के गवर्नर जनरल बनने के बाद कम्पनी ने भारतीय बच्चों की शिक्षा पर भी ध्यान दिया।

    1781 ई. में कलकत्ता में एक मदरसा स्थापित किया गया जिसमें अरबी तथा फारसी के अध्ययन की व्यवस्था की गई। इस मदरसे को खोलने का उद्देश्य मुस्लिम भद्र समाज के युवकों को कम्पनी में नौकरी करने योग्य बनाना था। 1791 ई. में हिन्दू कुलीनों के पुत्रों को पढ़ाने के लिये बनारस संस्कृत कॉलेज की स्थापना की गई। इसमें संस्कृत भाषा के साथ-साथ हिन्दू विधि, साहित्य एवं धर्म का अध्यापन किया जाता था। ईसाई मिशनरी भारत के विभिन्न प्रदेशों में स्कूल खोलकर भारतीय बच्चों को शिक्षा दे रहे थे। उनके द्वारा दी जाने वाली शिक्षा में पश्चिमी दर्शन, अध्यात्म, नैतिकता, तर्कशास्त्र तथा अँग्रेजी भाषा सम्मिलित थी। 1784 ई. में सर विलियम जॉन ने बंगाल एशियाटिक सोसाइटी की स्थापना की। जॉन ओवन ने बंगाल में स्कूल स्थापित किया जिसमें अँग्रेजी पढ़ाने का प्रावधान किया गया। 1800 ई. में लॉर्ड वेलेजली ने कलकत्ता में फोर्ट विलियम कॉलेज स्थापित किया। इसमें कम्पनी के अधिकारियों को भारतीय भाषाओं एवं रीति-रिवाजों का प्रशिक्षण दिया जाता था।
    ईसाई धर्म और पश्चिमी शिक्षा का जुड़ाव


    1792 ई. में चार्ल्स ग्रांट ने इंग्लैण्ड में प्रकाशित अपनी पुस्तक ऑब्जर्वेशन्स ऑन दी स्टेट ऑफ सोसाइटी एमोंग दी एशियाटिक सबजेक्ट्स में इस बात पर बल दिया कि भारत में ईसाई धर्म और पश्चिमी ज्ञान के प्रसार के लिए स्कूल स्थापित किये जायें। 1793 ई. में जिस समय इंग्लैण्ड की संसद में कम्पनी के अनुज्ञा-पत्र के नवीनीकरण पर विचार चल रहा था, उस समय बिशप विल्बर फोर्स ने ब्रिटिश संसद के हाउस ऑफ कॉमन्स सदन में प्रस्ताव रखा कि कम्पनी के डायरेक्टरों को भारत में ईसाई धर्म-प्रचार के लिए मिशनरी भेजने का अधिकार दिया जाये। इस प्रस्ताव का संसद में घोर विरोध हुआ और यह प्रस्ताव पारित नहीं हो सका किन्तु इंग्लैण्ड में यह विचार जोर पकड़ने लगा कि कम्पनी को भारतीयों की शिक्षा की जिम्मेदारी लेनी चाहिए। ब्रिटिश संसद ने इस बात को स्वीकार कर लिया तथा 1813 ई. के चार्टर एक्ट में भारतीयों की शिक्षा के लिए एक लाख रुपये वार्षिक व्यय का प्रावधान रखा।
    पाश्चात्य शिक्षा के विकास का प्रथम चरण (1813-1853 ई.)

    1813 ई. का चार्टर एक्ट भारतीय शिक्षा के इतिहास का एक निर्णायक मोड़ है। क्योंकि अब कम्पनी ने भारतीयों की शिक्षा को अपने कर्त्तव्यों में सम्मिलित कर लिया था। इसके बाद ईसाई मिशनरी अधिक-से अधिक संख्या में स्कूल खोलने के लिए भारत आने लगे। 1813 ई. के चार्टर एक्ट से भारतीय शिक्षा के क्षेत्र में तीव्र विवाद उठ खड़े हुए क्योंकि एक्ट में बहुत ही अस्पष्ट भाषा का प्रयोग किया गया था। एक्ट द्वारा निर्धारित धनराशि किस प्रकार खर्च की जायेगी इसे स्पष्ट नहीं किया गया था। एक्ट में केवल शिक्षा नीति के उद्देश्यों का उल्लेख था।

    ये उद्देश्य इस प्रकार थे- (1.) साहित्य का पुनरुद्धार और उन्नति। (2.) भारतीय विद्वानों को प्रोत्साहन। (3.) ब्रिटिश भारत की जनता में विज्ञान की स्थापना तथा वृद्धि।

    इस एक्ट को लेकर जो प्रश्न उठ खड़े हुए वे थे, वे इस प्रकार थे- (1.) शिक्षा नीति के उद्देश्यों की भावना क्या है? (2.) शिक्षा का माध्यम क्या होगा? (3.) शिक्षा संस्थाओं की व्यवस्था करने वाली एजेन्सियां कौनसी होंगी? (4.) सर्व-साधारण में शिक्षा के प्रचार के तरीके क्या होंगे? इन चारों प्रश्नों पर कम्पनी के उच्चाधिकारियों में तीव्र मतभेद उत्पन्न हो गये। सबसे तीव्र मतभेद शिक्षा के माध्यम को लेकर था।

    इस प्रश्न पर तीन विचारधाराएं सामने आईं- (1.) कम्पनी के पुराने कर्मचारी संस्कृत और अरबी भाषाओं के अध्ययन पर बल देते थे। उनकी मान्यता थी कि पश्चिमी ज्ञान और साहित्य का ज्ञान इन भाषाओं के माध्यम से दिया जा सकता है। (2.) मुनरो और एलफिंस्टन, आधुनिक भारतीय भाषाओं के माध्यम से शिक्षा देने के पक्ष में थे। उनकी मान्यता थी कि आधुनिक भारतीय भाषाओं के माध्यम से पश्चिमी ज्ञान जनता तक पहुँचाया जा सकता है। (3.) चार्ल्स ग्रान्ट तथा उसके अनुयायी यह मानते थे कि पश्चिमी ज्ञान को सुचारू रूप देने के लिए अँग्रेजी ही सबसे प्रभावशाली माध्यम है। इस विचारधारा के समर्थक ईसाई मिशनरी और कम्पनी के नवयुवक कर्मचारी थे। लॉर्ड मैकाले के भारत में आने के बाद यह विचारधारा काफी मजबूत हो गई। अगले बीस वर्षों तक कम्पनी के उच्चाधिकारी इन्हीं विवादों में उलझे रहे।

    1833 ई. का चार्टर एक्ट

    1833 ई. के चार्टर एक्ट द्वारा भारत में कम्पनी के व्यापार का एकाधिकार समाप्त करके भारत के दरवाजे निजी व्यापारियों के लिये खोल दिये गये। इसका लाभ ईसाई मिशनरियों ने भी उठाया। उन्होंने शिक्षा की आड़ में, ईसाई धर्म के प्रचार का काम तेजी से आगे बढ़ाया।

    लॉर्ड मैकाले के विचार

    फरवरी 1835 में लॉर्ड मैकाले ने अपना प्रसिद्ध विचार-पत्र लिखा जिसमें उसने भारतीय साहित्य दर्शन एवं ज्ञान के विरुद्ध तथा पश्चिमी ज्ञान एवं अँग्रेजी भाषा के पक्ष में अनोखे तर्क दिये। उसने विज्ञान की शिक्षा देने के लिए अँग्रेजी माध्यम का प्रबल समर्थन किया। उसकी दृष्टि में देशी भाषाओं में साहित्यिक तथा वैज्ञानिक शिक्षा देने की क्षमता नहीं थी। उसने संस्कृत और अरबी भाषाओं को शिक्षा का माध्यम बनाने का विरोध किया। अँग्रेजी भाषा का गुणगान करते हुए उसने लिखा- 'अँग्रेजी भाषा में जो साहित्य अब तक उपलब्घ है वह तीन सौ वर्ष के सम्पूर्ण विश्व की समस्त भाषाओं में उपलब्ध साहित्य से अधिक मूल्यवान है।'

    मैकाले के अनुसार यूरोप के एक अच्छे पुस्तकालय की अलमारी का एक खाना संस्कृत और अरबी के सम्पूर्ण देशी साहित्य के बराबर था। मैकाले ने भारतीय आयुर्विज्ञान, ज्योतिष, इतिहास और भूगोल पर करारा प्रहार करते हुए लिखा- 'आयुर्विज्ञान के सिद्धान्त जो एक अँग्रेज नालबन्द का अपमान करेंगे, ज्योतिष शास्त्र जो एक अँग्रेजी बोर्डिंग स्कूल में पढ़ने वाली लड़कियों में हँसी पैदा करेगा, इतिहास जिसमें तीस फुट ऊँचे बादशाह और तीस हजार वर्ष लम्बा शासन काल होगा, भूगोल जिसमें घी-दूध के समुद्र होंगे; इन सबको हम सरकारी खर्च पर प्रोत्साहन देंगे।'

    गवर्नर जनरल लॉर्ड विलियम बैंटिक (1828-1835 ई.) ने मैकाले के विचारों से सहमति प्रकट की। 1834 ई. में बैंटिक ने मैकाले की अध्यक्षता मंल एक समिति गठित की जिसकी कार्यवाही का विवरण 2 फरवरी 1835 को जारी हुआ। यह आधुनिक भारतीय शिक्षा का महत्त्वपूर्ण घोषणापत्र था। इसे भारतीय शिक्षा के मील के पत्थर के रूप में भी जाना जाता है।

    इस घोषणा पत्र से चार बातें प्रमुख रूप से उभर कर सामने आईं- (1.) भारतीय भाषा, साहित्य, दर्शन, विज्ञान एवं ज्ञान हर तरह से बौना है। (2.) पश्चिमी भाषा एवं ज्ञान की सर्वश्रेष्ठता निश्चित है। (3.) भारत में शिक्षा का माध्यम अँग्रेजी होना चाहिये। (4.) भारत की विशाल जनसंख्या को सरकारी संसाधनों से शिक्षा नहीं दी जा सकती। इसलिये शिक्षा के क्षेत्र में निजी क्षेत्र को बढ़ावा दिया जाना चाहिये।

    विलियम बैंटिक ने 7 मार्च 1835 को एक आदेश जारी करके कहा कि ब्रिटिश सरकार का महान उद्देश्य भारतीयों में यूरोपीय साहित्य और विज्ञान को प्रोत्साहन देना है। शिक्षा पर व्यय की जाने वाली राशि केवल अँग्रेजी शिक्षा पर ही खर्च की जानी चाहिए। बैंटिक ने भारत में नियमित शिक्षण व्यवस्था के विकास में बहुत रुचि दिखाई।

    लॉर्ड मैकाले की देन

    भारतीय शिक्षा के क्षेत्र में मैकाले की देन के विषय पर विद्वानों में भारी मतभेद है। कुछ उसे उन्नति के मार्ग का मशाल वाहक मानते हैं तो कुछ उसे अँग्रेजी शिक्षा के विस्तार के कारण भारत में उत्पन्न होने वाले असन्तोष और राजनीतिक अशान्ति के लिए उत्तरदायी मानते हैं। कुछ विद्वान भारतीय भाषाओं, संस्कृति और धर्म के बारे में उसकी अज्ञानता की कटु आलोचना करते हुए उसे निन्दनीय मानते हैं तो कुछ उसे भारतीय भाषाओं की अवहेलना के लिए दोषी ठहराते हैं। मैकाले को उन्नति के मार्ग का मशाल-वाहक कहना, उसकी अतिश्योक्तिपूर्ण प्रशंसा करना है। मैकाले द्वारा भारतीय साहित्य और धर्म की अनर्गल आलोचना करना तथा उसका मखौल उड़ाना वास्तव में निन्दनीय है। भारत में अँग्रेजी शासकों ने उसके इस सिद्धान्त का अक्षरंशः पालन किया कि- 'यदि किसी देश को दास रखना है तो उसके साहित्य और संस्कृति का विनाश कर देना चाहिये।'

    उपरोक्त दोषों के होते हुए यह भी सत्य है कि जिस पश्चिमी ज्ञान का मैकाले ने समर्थन किया उस पश्चिमी ज्ञान ने भारत को लाभ भी पहुँचाया। नये ज्ञान और शिक्षा ने भारत में एकता स्थापित करने में बड़ी भूमिका निभाई। पश्चिमी देशों में होने वाले वैज्ञानिक अनुसन्धानों तथा उपलब्धियों से भारतीयों को परिचित करवाया और भारतीय भाषाओं के विकास में योगदान दिया जिसके फलस्वरूप इन भाषाओं में से कुछ को आगे चलकर विश्वविद्यालय तक की शिक्षा देने योग्य बनाया जा सका।

    लॉर्ड विलियम बैंटिक ने 1835 ई. के निर्णय द्वारा भारत में शिक्षा के मूल उद्देश्य और माध्यम को लेकर चल रहे विवाद का समाधान करने का प्रयत्न किया, फिर भी यह विवाद पूरी तरह समाप्त नहीं हुआ। अगले गवर्नर जनरल लॉर्ड ऑकलैण्ड ने नवम्बर 1839 में एक आदेश द्वारा इस विवाद को पूरी तरह से समाप्त किया। उसने शिक्षा पर खर्च की जाने वाली धनराशि को बढ़ा दिया तथा यह आदेश भी दिया कि समाज के वरिष्ठ वर्ग को उच्च शिक्षा दी जाए ताकि यह वर्ग अपनी संस्कृति तथा ज्ञान को जन-साधारण तक पहुँचा सके। यह नीति ऊपर से नीचे की ओर शिक्षा-प्रसार के प्रसिद्ध सिद्धान्त पर आधारित थी। 1844 ई. में कम्पनी सरकार ने एक प्रस्ताव पारित करके स्पष्ट किया कि सरकारी नौकरियों में उन्हीं लोगों को प्राथमिकता दी जायेगी जो पश्चिमी ज्ञान और अँग्रेजी भाषा जानते होंगे।

    1813 ई. से 1853 ई. तक की अवधि में ब्रिटिश प्रान्तों तथा राजपूताना राज्यों में हुए शिक्षा विस्तार का विवरण इस प्रकार से है-

    (1.) बंगाल: ब्रिटिश संसद द्वारा 1813 ई. का चार्टर एक्ट पारित किये जाने के बाद, 1817 ई. में कलकत्ता स्कूल बुक सोसाइटी तथा कलकत्ता हिन्दू कॉलेज की स्थापना हुई। 1819 ई. में कलकत्ता स्कूल सोसाइटी स्थापित की गई। इन दोनों सोसाइटियों ने कलकत्ता तथा बंगाल के अन्य स्थानों पर सैकड़ों प्राथमिक स्कूल खोले, जिनके द्वारा शिक्षा का काफी प्रसार हुआ। 1823 ई. में गवर्नर जनरल के आदेश से जनरल कमेटी ऑफ पब्लिक इंस्ट्रक्शन नाम से एक केन्द्रीय समिति स्थापित की गई। संस्कृत के महान् विद्वान विल्सन को इसका सचिव बनाया गया।

    (2.) बम्बई: बम्बई में भी 1815 ई. में सोसाइटी फॉर प्रमोटिंग दी एजुकेशन ऑफ द पूअर नामक समिति स्थापित की गई। आगे चलकर इस सोसाइटी का नाम बॉम्बे एज्यूकेशन सोसाइटी कर दिया गया। बॉम्बे नेटिव एज्यूकेशन सोसाइटी की भी स्थापना हुई। इन सोसाइटियों ने बम्बई, पूना आदि नगरों में अनेक स्कूल और कॉलेज खोलकर शिक्षा का प्रसार किया।

    (3.) मद्रास: मद्रास में भी मद्रास स्कूल सोसाइटी तथा कमेटी ऑफ पब्लिक इंस्ट्रक्शन नामक संस्थाएं स्थापित हुईं जिन्होंने मद्रास में शिक्षा प्रसार का सराहनीय कार्य किया। शिक्षकों के प्रशिक्षण के लिए नॉर्मल स्कूलों की स्थापना करना, इन सोसाइटियों का महत्त्वपूर्ण कार्य था। इस प्रकार तीनों ब्रिटिश प्रेसीडेन्सियों में, शिक्षा प्रसार के लिए अनेक सोसाइटियों की स्थापना हुई।

    (4.) उत्तर-पश्चिमी प्रान्त: उत्तर-पश्चिमी प्रान्त का लेफ्टिनेन्ट गवर्नर जेम्स थॉमसन शिक्षा प्रसार के कार्य में बड़ी रुचि लेता था। उसने निर्णय लिया कि शिक्षा अँग्रेजी माध्यम की बजाय, मातृभाषा में दी जाये। उसने शिक्षा-प्रसार की एक विशद् योजना बनाकर केन्द्र सरकार से स्वीकृत करवाई। परम्परागत देशी शालाओं का सुधार और उनमें राष्ट्रीय शिक्षा पद्धति की स्थापना, इस योजना की मुख्य विशेषता थी। यह योजना परीक्षण के तौर उत्तर-पश्चिमी प्रान्त के आठ जिलों में लागू की गई। तत्पश्चात् प्रान्त के अन्य जिलों में भी प्राथमिक स्कूलों की स्थापना की गई। इन स्कूलों के संचालन के लिए शिक्षा विभाग की स्थापना की गई जिसके अंतर्गत प्रत्येक दो या अधिक तहसीली स्कूलों के निरीक्षण के लिए एक परगना विजिटर नियुक्त किया गया। उसके ऊपर प्रत्येक जिले के लिए एक जिला विजिटर और उसके ऊपर सम्पूर्ण प्रान्त के लिए विजिटर-जनरल नियुक्त किया गया। ये पद ही आगे चलकर सर्किल इन्सपेक्टर, डिस्ट्रिक्ट इन्सपेक्टर और डायरेक्टर ऑफ पब्लिक एज्यूकेशन कहलाए। बाद में यह शिक्षा योजना, बंगाल एवं बिहार में भी लागू कर दी गई।

    (5.) पंजाब: 1849 ई. में पंजाब का ब्रिटिश साम्राज्य में विलय करने के बाद पंजाब के नये प्रान्त की स्थापना हुई थी। उस समय पंजाब में हिन्दू, सिक्ख और मुसलमानों द्वारा बहुत सी प्राथमिक स्कूलें चलाई जा रही थीं। ये स्कूल- मन्दिर, मस्जिद या गुरुद्वारों से सम्बद्ध होते थे। इनमें से कुछ में लड़कियों को भी शिक्षा जाती थी किन्तु बहुत ही कम लड़कियां शिक्षा प्राप्त करती थीं। 1849 ई. के बाद सरकार ने अमृतसर में एक स्कूल खोला जिसमें अन्य विषयों के साथ-साथ अँग्रेजी भी पढ़ाई जाती थी। इसके बाद 1853 ई. तक वहाँ कोई सरकारी स्कूल नहीं खोला गया।

    (6.) राजपूताना: लॉर्ड हेस्टिंग्ज के समय 1818 ई. में राजपूताना की प्रायः समस्त रियासतों के साथ अँग्रेजों ने सहायक सन्धियां कीं। राजपूताना की सैनिक परम्पराओं के कारण लॉर्ड हेस्टिंग्ज का राजपूताना से विशेष लगाव था। उसने सेरामपुर (बंगाल) के प्रसिद्ध ईसाई पादरी विलियम कैरे के पुत्र जबेज कैरे को राजपूताने में शिक्षा-प्रसार के लिए भेजा और उसे शिक्षा अधीक्षक के पद पर नियुक्त किया। 1819 ई. में उसने अजमेर पहुँच कर एक स्कूल की स्थापना की। तत्पश्चात् उसने पुष्कर में भी एक स्कूल खोला। अगले तीन वर्षों में उसने भिनाय और केकड़ी में भी स्कूल खोले किन्तु जबेज इन स्कूलों में ईसाई धर्म की शिक्षा देने लगा तो लॉर्ड हेस्टिंग्ज ने उसे फटकारा। इन स्कूलों की विशेष प्रगति न देखकर 1827 ई. में इन्हें बन्द करके केवल अजमेर का स्कूल चालू रखा। 1831 ई. में उसे भी बन्द कर दिया गया।

    इस प्रकार ईस्ट इण्डिया कम्पनी द्वारा राजपूताने में शिक्षा प्रसार का प्रथम प्रयास लगभग असफल रहा। 1836 ई. में कम्पनी ने पुनः अजमेर में एक स्कूल खोला। उसे भी जनवरी 1843 में बन्द कर देना पड़ा। 1851 ई. में अजमेर में पुनः एक स्कूल खोला। तब से अजमेर में निरन्तर शिक्षा की प्रगति होती रही। राजस्थान की अन्य रियासतों में भी वहाँ के ब्रिटिश पोलीटिकल एजेन्टों के प्रयत्न से कुछ स्कूल खोले गये। 1842 ई. में अलवर तथा भरतपुर और 1844 ई. में जयपुर में प्रथम आधुनिक स्कूल खोला गया।

    तकनीकी शिक्षा

    1833 ई. से 1853 ई. की अवधि में भारत में स्त्रियों तथा मुसलमानों की शिक्षा के लिए कुछ प्रयत्न किये गये किन्तु उनका कोई ठोस परिणाम नहीं आया। इस अवधि में मेडिकल, इन्जीनीयरिंग तथा अन्य तकनीकी शिक्षा के लिए भी कुछ कदम उठाये गये। 1835 ई. में कलकत्ता और मद्रास में तथा 1845 ई. में बम्बई में मेडिकल कॉलेज खोले गये। 1846-47 ई. में अजमेर में भी मेडिकल स्कूल खोलने का प्रयास किया गया किन्तु यह प्रयास सफल नहीं हुआ। 1847 ई. में रुड़की में भारत का प्रथम इन्जीनियरिंग कॉलेज स्थापित किया गया। 1850 ई. में मद्रास में एक औद्योगिक तथा व्यवसायिक स्कूल स्थापित किया गया।


  • Share On Social Media:
  • Forts and Palaces of Marwar

     21.08.2017
    Forts and Palaces of Marwar

    Cunstruction of Palacial Buildings in Marwar Region




    Marwar was a principality in Thar desert, established by Rathore rajputs in 14th century. A huge number of forts and palaces were built by the Rathore rulers but Many of those were already in existance in this region before the rise of Rathores. Naga rulers built Mandore and Nagaur forts. Pratiharas built Jalore fort. Chouhans constructed the fort of Siwana. The forts at Mehrangarh, Kuchawan, Bhadrajun, Malkot, Phalodi, Bhopalgarh, Rohat, Sojat, Bali, Jaitaran, Agewa, Kilon, Auwa, Pokhran etc. were built by Rathores. All these forts were good examples of military architecture.

    Early rajputs have their own style of constructing the palacial buildings but With the coming of the Muslims into power in this area, architecture of this land also assumed Indo-Islamic character finding expression in forts, citadels and palaces. Though their builders were Hindus, they liberally borrowed the structural features from Muslim buildings. No doubt, the builders in Marwar started following the Muslim features in their creations; yet the architectural art was essentially Hindu in spirit till the early years of the fifteenth century. Slowly and gradually, in the subsequent three to four centuries this art in Marwar came under the influence of Pathan and Mughal art. The Pathan and Mughal influences led to the assimilation in the field of architecture. The chief characteristic of this new style was the mystic spirit of unreality, especially in the fairy-like aspect of the cool white marble, with its glittering incrustations of mother-of-pearl and precious stones.

    Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh of Jaipur borrowed Aurangzeb's Baroque Style when he built the pink city of Jaipur as a new capital for his kingdom and he was soon followed by the States of Jodhpur and Udaipur. Therefore, the Baroque-Mughal style got itself blended with the Rocco style. The Chief characteristic of this late Rajasthan architecture is its 'musicality'- the structure of the buildings is almost lost behind the rich play of forms, of light and shadow and of colours.




    Forts of Marwar Region




    In India, maximum forts are situated in Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. There are 656 forts in Maharashtra, 330forts in Madhya Pradesh and 250in Rajasthan. In ancient and medieval period, the popular and shorter route from Delhi to Somnath was via Marwar. So invaders like Mahmood Ghazni, Muhammad Gouri, Kutub-ud-din Aibak, Ala-ud-din Khilzi etc. when attacked Gujrat or Somnath, they adopted this route. Military strategy dictated that fortifications be raised on an elevated spot. So rulers of this area built a strong chain of forts and fortresses. The prominent forts were- Nagaur, Kuchawan, Maroth and Malkot (Nagaur distrct), Mehrangarh, Phalodi and Bhopalgarh (Jodhpur district), Rohtas, Nadole and Bali (pali district), Sonalgarh, Bhadrajun, Ratanpur, Lohiyana and Sancore (Jalore district), Siwana (Barmer district), Pokran (Jaisalmer district). Many of these forts, like Ratanpur and Sanchore forts were completely diminished by enemies. Umarkot was also a prominent fort of Marwar principality but East India Company took over its management and in 1947, this fort was transferrsd to Pakistan. These forts were used for the safety of not only royal families but the public also. A Large number of soldiers and artillery were kept here for whole year. When Marwar state had a treaty of subsidiary alliance with East India Company and later on when aircrafts came into existence, the forts did not remain safe. So the construction of the forts and fortresses was stopped and the royal families started building their palaces and havelis in outer areas.

    Forts of Ancient period

    Mandore Fort :

    This town was in existance in the 4th century A.D. Some names of individuals are engraved in two or three places near the cave of Nahadrao in characters of early Gupta period. According to a stone inscription of V.S. 894, Mandore was originally ruled by Naga rulers. Later on Gupta rulers conquered this fort and they also did some constructions in the campus of the fort. There was a fort when the town was taken into possession by the Pratiharas in the 6th century A.D. Bhogbhatta, Kakka, Rajjil and Dadda, the four sons of Pratihar Harishchandra constructed a wall around it. The place is of great historical interest from having been the capital of the Parihars till 1381 A.D., when it was wrested from them by Rao Chunda, and subsequently the seat of government of the Rathore Rajputs till 1459 A.D., when Mehranghrh fort and Jodhpur city were founded. The fort of Mandore was built by a Buddhist architect but now in ruins, contains a low and dark pillared chamber, in which is found the sculptured effigy of Nahar Rao, a famous Parihar chief. The two inscriptions of the time of Kakkuk brother of Bahuk from Ghatiyala (twenty miles north of Jodhpur) reveal that the son of Pratihar ruler Harishchandra built the boundary wall at Mandore after possession over it. Nag Bhalta built a temple of Nahadswami at Mandore fort. The elder son of Nahad sacrificed the whole domain, gifted it to the younger brothers and underwent penances at Mandore.

    Nagaur Fort :

    According to Dodwell, Nagaur fort was built by black Naga rulers in 2nd century A.D. Initially it was a mud fort. The town is said to take its name from its traditional founders, the Naga Rajputs. From the 7th century A.D., it was probably governed by Chauhans and was held succes¬sively by Prithvi Raj Chauhan, Muhammad Ghori, and the chiefs of Jodhpur, save for a time when it was possessed by the Bikaner chief by grant from Akbar, and by another Rathore family by grant from Shah Jahan. The fort, rising above the town, has a double wall nearly a mile long, the outer being 25 feet and the inner 50 feet above the ground, with a thickness of more than 30 feet at the base and about 12 feet at the top. The principal objects of interest in the fort are some palaces, a fountain with seventeen jets (dating from Akbars reign), a mosque erected by Shah Jahan, and a cave claimed by both Hindus and Musalmans as a place of retreat for their former saints.

    Jalore Fort :

    From Kuvlayamala, it is clear that in the 8th century A.D., Jalore was a flourishing town adorned with temples and buildings of rich men. It was ruled at this time by the Pratihar ruler Vatsraja. On a hill to the south and entirely commanding the town stands the fort, one of the most famous in Rajputana. Built by the Parihars of Mandore, its walls, composed of huge masses of cut stone, remain even now in a perfect state of preservation, although the place has been many times besieged. The fort is about 800 by 400 yards in extent, and accessible only by an ascent of 3 miles up a steep and slippery stone roadway, passing three distinct lines of defence, all of considerable strength. After the fall of Parihar empire, Jalore fort was held by the Paramaras till towards the end of the twelfth century, when the Chauhan Rao Kirthi Pal (of Nadol) took it and made it his capital. His grandson Udai Singh surrendered it to Shams-ud-dm Altamsh about 1210 A.D., but it was immediately restored to him. About 100 years later, Ala-ud-din Khilzi, after a lengthy siege, captured it from Kanhaddeo Chauhan, and a three-domed mosque, said to have been built by him, is still in good repair and daily use. About 1540 the fort passed into the possession of Raja Maldeo of Jodhpur. It remained in the hands of his ascendants till the independence. In the end of 18th century prince Mansingh of Jodhpur took shelter in this fort. Some buildings of that period still can be seen in the fort premise.

    Siwana Fort :

    This fort was built by Veer Narayana, the Parmara prince of king Bhoja in V.S. 1011 (954 A.D.). He called it "Kumthana". In 12th century A.D., Chauhans of Nadole won Jalore and later on they took possession of Siwana also. In 14th century, Sataldeo, the nephew of king Kanhaddeo of Jalore, was ruling over this fort. According to Kanhaddeo Prabandha, when Ala-ud-din Khilzi, the ruler of Delhi sultanate, headed towards Jalore, Sataldeo came forward and challenged him to attack on Siwana first and then go to Jalore. Ala-ud-din Khilzi changed his route and accepted the challenge to attack Siwana. Sataldeo was a brave warrior and he fought with full zeal against Khilzi. After a long and fierce fight Ala-ud-din Khilzi defeated Sataldeo. Khilzi changed the fort's name and thus "Kumthana" became "Siwana". Ptolemy, in his book "Geograpy" has mentioned about a desert city "Zoana", this is actually siwana. This city was situated in a hilly fort. In medieval period this fort remained under Rathore rulers of Jodhpur. In Tarikh-E-Alai, Ala-ud-din Khilzi decribes that Siwana was situated in horrible forest which was full of wild men who usually plundered the travelers. The fort of Siwana was located on a hilltop in which Sataldev lived like a Simurg and thousands of his nobles were doing his security.

    Forts of Medieval period

    Rathore rulers of Marwar and their nobles built many forts in Marwar during medieval period. The forts at Jodhpur, Bhadrajun, Bhopalgarh, Phalodi, Maroth and Kuchaman were prominent among them. The forts of Bhadrajun, Bhopalgarh, Maroth, Bali and Rohat were small in size. In 17th century, prince Akbar and princess Safiyat-Un-Nisa of Mugal empreror Aurangzeb were kept for some time in Rohat fort by Veer Durgadas Rathore. Lohiyana fort was destroyed by Jaswantsingh II of Jodhpur as the Thakur of Lohiyana became rebellious against the ruler of Jodhpur. In 1752 A.D., Phalodi fort was completely diminished by Maharaja Vijay Singh of Jodhpur to crush the rebellious Rathore noble Jogidas. It might have rebuilt during 18th century as Phalodi was an important cener for salt producing and it was situated at Jaisalmer State's border.

    Meherangarh Fort

    Jodhpur was capital of the state of Marwar. Dominating the city is Meherangarh, one of Rajasthan's great hilltop forts.Meherangarh appears impregnable, and with good reason. The fort stands out in great magnificence on an isolated rock about 400 ft. above the sandy plains. It is one of the most gigantic and majestic fort of erstwhile princely states enclosing within it oblong space of about 500 yards in width. This enclosure is almost completely covered by palaces, bar-racks and magazines. The height of its walls varies from 20 ft. to 112 ft. Seven barriers are thrown across its circuitous ascent, each having eminent portals and their sepa¬rate guards. There is no access to the ramparts, apart from one entrance of seven successive gateways, each with its own protective devices for the defence of the fort. The strength of the fort's massive walls, and of its gateways, are in direct contrast to delicately lovely residential buildings within. They feature few of the refinements of inlay and wall painting that are evident in states where there was more time for leisure and the pursuit of aesthetics.

    Nevertheless, Meherangarh has its own architectural drama, such as brilliant stained glass that creates colourful mosaics on the floors with the passage of the sun through the day. Meherangarh is the example of the most extensive fort ever built in Marwar. Rao Jodha got it constructed. Foundation of the fort was laid down by famous Charan Devi Kaniji on 12th May 1459. The Fort is surrounded by a wall 12 to 17 feet wide and 20 to 150 feet high. Maximum width of the Fort is 750 feet and length 1500 feet. This magnificient fort on a 400 feet high hill can be seen from a great distance.

    It is said that when the sky becomes clear after rains, Mehrangarh can be seen from Jalore Fort. According to astrology, the name of this fort is Chintamani but it was famous as Mihirgarh. Mihir means Sun and garh means fort. This Mihirgarh has now changed to Mehrangarh. Because it's shape is like that of a peacock's tail, it is also called Mayur Dhwaj Fort.The fort encloses the Palace, gates, temples, artillery, memorials, armoury etc. During Jodha's reign the area under the Fort was called Jodhaji ka Falsa. The construction of the front part of Loha pole (Gate) started in 1548 A.D. during Rao Maldeo's reign and was finished in 1752 A.D. during Maharaja Vijai Singh's reign. The walls of this gate have imprints of Sati Hands.Jai Pole is Located in the North West of the Fort, this gate was constructed by Raja Mansingh in 1806 A.D. in the memory of winning a battle against Jaipur. The Iron Gate fixed in this pole was brought by Udawat Amar Singh, Thakur of Nimbaj in 1730 A.D., from Ahmedabad during the reign of Maharaja Abhay Singh. Maharaja Man Singh fixed it in Jai Pole.In memory of winning the battle with Mugals, Fateh Pole was made by Maharaja Ajit Singh in 1707 A.D. Between Fateh Pole and Palace there are six other gates called Gopal Pole, Bheron Pole, Amrit Pole, Dhruv Pole, Loha Pole and Suraj Pole. Important buildings inside the fort are the Motimahal, Fatehmahal, Phoolmahal, Sringarmahal and the temples of Chamunda, Murlimanohar and Anand-ghan.

    Kuchawan Fort :

    Kuchawan was a head-quarter of a jagir estate of the earstwhile State of Jodhpur. A strong and well-built fort containing 18 Towers (Burj), several palatial buildings, temples and water reserviors was built by Rathore nobels on a hilltop near the town. The Thakurs of Kuchawan belongd to the Mertia sept of Rathore Rajputs, In state time a mint was established in this fort where silver coins were casted. The one rupee silver coin was known as Kuchawani rupia. In Jodhpur state, only Kuchawan Thakur among the nobels could issue currency.




    Palaces Of Marwar Region



    In times of peace, the rulers of Marwar built delicate palaces, incorporating the best from Rajput, Mughal and British architecture. These buildings are splen¬didly handsome, as Umaid Bhawan Palace in Jodhpur is, or exquis¬itely pretty, such as the Sheesh Mahal in Mehrangarh fort. Rarely has the world seen such thoughtful divisions of space as exists in Jodhpur. The palaces had to suit the dual lifestyle of the royals. They had to function as modern residences, as well as traditional Indian style palaces in which it was essential that there be separate women's quarters and corridors through which women could move from one area to another in privacy. Though the maharajas also built separate summer residences, the main palace almost inevitably had a room designed so that breeze flowed freely through it, where the royals could relax on a hot summer afternoon in the comfort of perfumed, cooling breezes. While later palaces had grand, sweeping staircases in the best Continental tradition, and were surrounded by open gardens, many of the earlier palaces were built within fortified walls and characterised by narrow staircases and unimpressive entrances to the royal apartments.

    A large number of luxurious palaces were built in the 19th and early 20th century for a variety of reasons. Jodhpur's Umaid Bhawan Palace was built to provide employment during a terrible famine.It was not just the architecture of the palaces that was spectacular; their furnishings also set them apart from other grand residences. Elaborate architectural motifs were picked out in window screens, pavilions, balconies, cupolas and turrets. Inside the palaces, French tapestry, French and English furniture, Belgian suites and Bohemian crystal chandeliers were used to create the world's richest homes. The look could be formal, or art deco. Often, sadly, it was eccentric because the royals shopped indiscriminately and shipped back everything that caught their fancy in Europe and England. Faberge eggs sat beside onyx lamps, and the Swiss watch industry worked overtime to keep royal households supplied with a clock for each mantelpiece, and there were often more than a hundred! Carpets worth small fortunes were casually flung in the halls, on staircases, and in cars. Silver and gold appointments in certain palace suites were common. In the ballroom, wood floors were provided for Western ballroom dancing. Those halls in which traditional mujras were staged were heavily carpeted. Inevitably too, trophies of hunts graced dining rooms and billiard rooms, and the maharaja's study.

    Palaces in Mehrangarh Fort :

    The palaces in Mehrangarh fort were built in an informal pattern over several centuries. They follow their own rhythm, with narrow staircases serving as the only means of access to the royal residences. The maze of buildings would have made it difficult for any invader to discover the right route to the innermost apartments, and this acted, therefore, as a defence, an essential element since Jodhpur was often at war! Main palaces at Meherangarh include Moti Mahal, the pearl palace, with its pierced stone screens and Shringar Chowki where coronation ceremonies were held. The Shringar Chowki was constructed during Maharaja Vijay Singh's reign. Jhanki Mahal in the women's area has a view of the public areas so that the royal women could watch the day's proceedings. Chandan Mahal was a hall of private audience in which affairs of state were discussed by the luminaries of the state. Rang Mahal is a pleasure palace, the Durbar Takht throne room contains an octagonal gaddi upon which the maharaja sat in state. The sheesh mahal was formerly a house of worship. The palaces have beautiful carved panels and perforated screens of red stone.

    Umaid Bhavan Palace :

    Umaid Bhavan Palace is built of pink Chheetar stone. The palace rises above the surrounding landscape, towering above the city in regal isolation, on its own hill.The 20th century Umaid Bhawan Palace was built in a time of peace and is open and Western in its design. Maharaja Umaid Singh hired an English engineer, H. V. Lanchester to design his new palace. Lanchester brought with him the heavy civic style of building to which he was accustomed. The building is located on Chheetar Hill. A special rail line was laid to transport building materials to the site. Slowly the great domes rose in royal splendour above the sur-rounding plain. Its builder and the architect had only one ambition: when complete, it was to rival the Viceroy's Palace in New Delhi, then also under construction. Under a dome, the like of which no other palace in Rajasthan has, Umaid Bhavan Palace contains over 300 rooms. It has its own theatre, eight dining rooms, and a banquet hall which seats three hundred people. A Ball Room catered to the westernised royal life-style. Much of the interior of the palace is in the art deco style. In fact it is said to be one of the finest surviving examples of art deco in the world. In the luxurious suites designed for the maharaja and maharani, Indian themes were painted by European artists. Entire baths were carved out of single blocks of marble. Deep within the bowels of the palace is an indoor swimming pool, with a mosaic of zodiac symbols.The royal family is still in residence in the palace, but so huge is the building that it also houses a magnificent museum and an impressive hotel.

    Palaces on Foot hills :

    Sawai Maharaja Sur Singh made a palace on a big rock in the plains of Mehrangarh. This palace can still be seen on the road between Ada Bazar and Juni Dhan Mandi. Sur Singh had made this palace for his queen Saubhagya Devi. Later this palace became the residence of widows of the royal family. The treasury and families of Maharaja Man Singh and Jaswant Singh II were also kept here. A tunnel was made from Fateh Pole at the fort to this palace passing Ranisar. This tunnel was used by queens in normal days and by the spies during emergency.Some secret rooms were also made in the palace which were used for keeping arms and treasure. The entrance of the palace is like a valley in which a large arch was constructed. Main entrance comes after a slight turn. The palace is made like the Bhool Bhuliya of Lucknow, to prevent the enemy from entering easily. Its stone work is extremely fascinating. The remains of the delicate carving on red sandstone can still be seen.

    Sur Sagar Palaces :

    About 1.5kms away from Jodhpur city, Maharaja Sur Singh got constructed a pond with beautiful gardens and palaces. These palaces are made on rectangular platforms made of white Marble. Two palaces opposite each other belong one each to ladies and gents. The palace for men was used by the king and other royal men, while the ladies' palace was used by the queens and their friends. Two large halls were constructed on the sides of the palaces, which were used by the maids and servants. The security walls made around the palaces, carved domes and arches are proof of the fine architecture of medieval period. The passage to the palaces starts after a large gate. When Marwar entered in an agreement with British government in 1817, these palaces were converted into the residence and office of the British Ambassdor in 1838. Jodhpur's first Post Office was opened in the meeting halls of these palaces. In 1909 when Lord Kichner came to Jodhpur, a museum was made in these palaces for him.

    Bijolai Palaces :

    Maharaja Takhat Singh built 'Bijolai Palaces'. These are located about
     11 kms from Jodhpur city. Maharaja Vijai Singh used to come to this place for hunting. Bijolai palace is divided into three parts. The stairs near the main wall reach the top of the palace. In the centre of the main palace is a large open space adjacent to the kitchen. The central part of the second and third floors have large halls each surrounded by 40 pillars. These are made of red sandstone and the interiors of the palace have been polished with shells. Maroon and blue shades can still be seen on the ceilings of the halls. All the sides of the halls have stone frame fittings from which doors are missing. Small almirahs are made on both sides of the doors which earlier had gold sheets covering them.

    Raikabag Palace :

    This palace is situated near Raikabag palace railway station. It was constructed in 1663 by Hadiji, queen of Maharaja Jaswant Singh I. Maharaja Jaswant Singh-II also liked this palace very much. He mostly stayed in the octagonal bungalow of this palace. In 1883 when Swami Dayanand Sarswati came to Jodhpur, his sermons were arranged for the public in the ground of this palace. Jaswant Singh-II used to listen to Swami Dayanand in this palace only.

    Zenana Palace :

    Zenana Palace was made on a picturesque spot in Mandore during the reign of Maharaja Ajit Singh (1707-24 A.D.). The grandeur and architecture of the palace catches the eye immediately. The palace is made like a small fort, surrounded with walls. The big stones used to make the main structure have been joined without any binding material. A large gate forms the entrance of the building with ventilators. The stones on the gate have flowers, domes and other designs sculpted on them. A large umbrella on the gate is also designed into various shapes and forms. Its centre has a large stone flower to hang chandeliars. Around the umbrella stone awnings beautifully are attached to it. This mahal is also monumental evidence to Marwar architecture.The palace has many rooms of various shapes. Different spots in the building have filigiree, flowers, leaves and other designs carved on them. The room towards the West after entering the gate has walls decorated with flowers and leaves and a scene showing an elephant attacking a lion.

    Ek Thamba Mahal :

    This palace in the form of a single pillar was also made during the reign of Maharaja Ajit Singh (1707-24 A.D.). This octagonal palace has been made by joining stones with filigiree work, the upper portions of which have been made into flowers. The palace is made of brown coloured soft sandstone which can be easily carved. The stones have been adjusted in such a manner that the joints can't be seen and the whole-building seems to be carved out of a very large single rock. Around the main structure which is in the form of a single pillar, awnings have been beautifully arranged in Bengali style. These prevent rain water from splashing straight on the building. The top two storeys of this three storeyed building have a large number of ventilators on all sides. These storeys can be reached by climbing the stone stairs within the palace. The structure is surrounded by a platform and an open space in front. A boundary has been made around the platform, with the help of small pillars. The main door can be reached by crossing this platform, though all the sides of the palace have an entrance.


  • Share On Social Media:
  • Havelis, Shrines and cenotaphs in Marwar

     21.08.2017
    Havelis, Shrines and cenotaphs in Marwar

    Havelis, Shrines and cenotaphs in Marwar

    Historical monuments include forts, palaces, Havelis, shrines, cenotaphs ,etc. Erstwhile Marwar principality of Thar desert was quite rich in this field. We have given a brief account of forts and palaces of this region. In this article a breiff account of Havelis, Shrines and cenotaphs is nentioned. Rulers of Mawar, Jagirdars and nobels, wealthy merchants and other people got constructed many buildings in the area which have immense historical importance.

    Havelis

    While the rulers were building palaces, the nobles and wealthy merchants of marwar built big residences which were called havelis (mansions), structured around a courtyard or a series of courtyards, with a zenana for the women, and a segregated front area strictly for male visitors. A number of beautiful havelis came up in almost every major Rajasthani prinspality.In 18th and 19th century almost every noble of Jodhpur state, got constucted his haveli in Jodhpur city for being the capital of the Marwar state. These havelis were known after their thikana, like- Pokran Haveli, Nimaj Haveli, Ras haveli, etc. Later on these havelis were called House, like Khejarla house, Asop house, Jhalamand house, Jasol house, ettc. There are so many old style havelis in jodhpur city. Most of them are of mediveal and modern period.

    Pokaran haveli, Asop haveli, Rakhi haveli, Pal Haveli, Pushya Nakshtra haveli, Haidar Building, Gol Building, Zawahar Khana, Udaimandir ka Aasan, Badi Miyan ki Haveli, Shyam Manohar Prabhu ki haveli (Chaupasani Temple), are famous havelis of Johpur city. Phalodi is also famous for havelis. Haveli of Motilal Amarchand Kochar, Haveli of Sangi das Thanvi, Haveli of Phool Chand Golechha, Haveli of Lal Chand Dhaddha, Haveli of Bachhawats and Havelis of Tatia family are well known havelis of Phalodi and are full of rich architect. Raj Singh was the prime Minister of Maharaja Gaj Singh and Maharaja Jaswant Singh (I). He costructed a haveli in Jodhpur, Now it is known as Asop Ki Haweli.It is located beyond Ada Bazar in Fulelav Ki Ghati near Nai Ka Bad. This haveli still can be seen.

    Pushya Nakshatra haveli was planned to have construction work in Pushya Nakshtar only. The construction went on 273 Pushya nakshatra days in 21 years but it could not be completed as its owner Bhurji died. He was the kamdar of Maharaja Jaswant Singh II. After passing a period of more than one century, this haveli is still incomplete. This is the unique example of its one type. A statue of Edward 7th of England was fixed in this haveli which is still in good condition. A picture of Queen Victoria was also fixed on a wall which in depilated condition now.

    Jawahar Khana

    Jawahar Khana is originally a haveli but when it was used for keeping treasury of Jodhpur state, it was popular as Jawahar Khana. It was built by Nanhi Bai, a beloved beautiful dancer of Maharaja Jaswant Singh (II.) Fifty feet high Jawahar Khana has sandstone walls with a width of 2.5 or 3 feet. A grand pole (gate) has to be crossed to enter the yellow sandstone (Cheetar) building. While the building was being made, Nanhi Bai passed a royal order that all the buildings around it should be at least 10 feet shorter than Jawahar Khana, and the order was followed throughout her life time. Nanhi Bai wanted to make Jawahar Khana straight, but this could be done only if Muhammad Khan Ekka's house was razed to the ground. Nanhi Bai ordered that Ekka's house be destroyed. Ekka was a loyal soldier who had won a Jagir near Rohat as a reward from the Maharaja.Ekka ran to the king. Nanhi was ordered to let the building be constructed at a tangent only. Thus today the Jawahar Khana is not a square building.Twenty two rooms and two big halls in the main portion were constructed in Jawahar Khana. One hall was used as a sitting room by Nanhi and the other as a bedroom. The hall facing the Pole (Gate) was used for evening dances. In between was a big ground for meetings or mehfils. In the rooms on the left of the Pole, chariots, palkis etc. were kept.

    Shrines and cenotaphs

    It was very old tradition in whole India that a shrine, cenotaph or deval is built in the memory of a ruler or noble or warrior or a member of royal family or deity or any other important man or woman after his or her death. This was very popular in Marwar also. There is hardly any village or town in Marwar where any cenotaph or shrine is not found. It is known as Chhatri in local tounge. In marwar, deities fall roughly into seven types- (1.) Sati, (2.) Pitrani, (3.) Junjhar (4.) Pitar, (5.) Shaheed, (6.) Devi, (7.) Bhumia. Most shrines develop a reputation for being efficacious for particular kinds of problems—sometimes specific diseases, physical handicaps, loss of property, mental illness and so on. Shrines- roadside shrines, consecrated stones, idoles and icons of these deities dot the landscape of Marwar.

    Cenotaphs of the Rulers at Panchkunda

    Near Panchkunda, there is a funeral place of the Rathore rulers of Marwar which has temple-like memorials ranging from V.S. 1451 to 1546. Cenotafs of Rao Chunda, Rao Ranmal, Rao Jodha and Rao Ganga may be seen here. The gates of the memorials have Ashka Matrikas, Ganga and Yamuna with their vehicles carved on them. Many depictions of public life like a sleeping man with a woman sitting near his feet, soldiers on elephants, horses, Ganesha with four arms, dance and music parties etc. can also be seen. One of the memorials of V.S. 1213 (1156 A.D.) has inscription with the names of Rathore Bhuwani's son Salkha and his three queens- Salkhan Devi Chahuvani, Sawal Devi Solankini and Sejna Devi Gehlotni. The Garbha grihas of these memorials are now empty. They possibly had some inscriptions earlier which are now missing.

    Cenotaphs of the Queens at Panchkunda

    Near Panchkunda, a ground enclosed with four walls has the Samadhi sthal or memorials of the Queens. Earlier known as Janana Shamshan, the memorials made here are a proof of the Marwar kings' love for art and taste for architecture. Out of a total of 42 cenotaphs, one which is known for its grandeur is the dome of Queen Surya Kanwari made on 32 carved pillars. Queen Surya Kanwari was the daughter of King Pratap Singh of Jaipur, who expired in 1882. A large inscription on the memorial gives the details of the memorial. The domes have shell polish. Some diamond shaped pieces have been fixed in the walls in such a manner that they give the impression of being diamonds only. The artistic pots on the domes have blackened and been damaged.The memorial dome of Rani Bhatiyani of King Man Singh is made on a high platform. Its stones have broken and the inscriptions have also been damaged intentionally. The stones of the stairs leading to the top of the dome have weakened but the top portion of the dome is somewhat safe and sturdy. Dome of Queen Tulsi, daughter of Maharaj Viraj Nath Singh (V.S.1933, 1876 A.D.), memorial of Chawanji Raniwada (V.S.1979, 1922 A.D.) mother of Maharaj Jodhraja and Queen of Maharaja Takhat Singh are almost destroyed. Besides, there are memorials of Rani Chauhanji - daughter of Bakhtawar Singh and Queen of Thakur Karan Singh; Gulab Kanwar - daughter of Maharaja Shiv Singh of Sirohi; Queen Udai Kanwar- daughter of Rana Chandan Singh of Dhamodhar; Queen Dewdi of Maharaja Prithvi Singh, Naruki Lunkaran Queen of Maharaja Mohabbat Singh and Teja Dewdi - grand mother of Maharaja Takhat Singh.

    Devals of Mandore

    In Mandore garden down below the rocky platue, littered with ruins, are the devals or cenotaphs of the former rulers of Marwar. These are from Rao Maldeo (1531-62 A. D.) to Maharaja Takhat Singh (1843-73 A. D.). Some devals are great examples of architecture, for example the Devals of Maharaja Jaswant Singh, Ajit Singh and Takhat Singh, especially that of Maharaja Jaswant Singh. Most of the Devals give an impression of a Devalaya or temple.The cenotaph of Maharaja Ajit Singh is the largest of all the other buildings and the architectural composition of the Chhatari may safely be put in the salivate and the Jain styles. Maharaja Ajit Singh's deval has carved stones which have been carved seperately and then put together on the platform. The complete memorial seems to be knotted with stones. This three storeyed deval has Sabha Mandap, Ardh Mandap and Garbhgriha with lots of carved pillars. The outer walls of the first two storeys are covered with small statues of 36x11 inches, each wall having 48 statues. In these gods and goddesses in different poses, men and women, animals and natural scenes have been depicted.

    Cenotaphs of Kaga

    five kilometers North of Jodhpur city, between the Aravali hills lies the famous pilgrim centre of Kaga. It is said that saint Kag Bhusundi worshipped here, as a result of which Bhagwati Ganga appeared at this place. Later funerals of royal family members started to be performed here. Now it is known as Kaga cremation ground. More than 150 devals and domes can still be seen here. These also include domes of Bhatis, Rathores, Champawats, Rao Rajputs, Swamis, Rajpurohits, Sanghis and Charans.The artistic pillars, white marble statues and inscriptions of these devals take the tourists into the glorious past of Marwar. They tell about those royal people who, by their deeds have taken important places in the foundation and enhancement of Hindu religion. The shell polish inscriptions, statues, horses and boundaries of many of these memorials are now broken. Because most of the inscriptions have been destroyed, it becomes difficult to know about each memorial, but some of them still have their descriptive stories written on them. Two of them are the 'Sati Mata Thans' of two queens of Thakur Gambhir Singh who had committed Sati on the funeral pyre of their husband. The domes opposite each other have memorials of Purbia Rajputs, impressive of them being that of Nuhasingh. There is also a Bekalu Shamshan. This place also has memorial cenotaphs of Shankar Bharti and his wife Maina Bai. On the right of the domes of Rajpurohits are the domes of Rao Chandisa family. At the centre of this group of domes is Shrimant Vikramaditya Rajput's high dome resting on 20 carved pillars. It was made by Rajpurush Gordhan Das in V.S. 1882. Some of the recent memorials are that of Kunwari Narendra Kanwar Rathore, great grand daughter of Rao Raja Surat Singh - grand mother of Maharaja Umed Singh and many other landlords.

    Jaswant Thada

    Construction work of Jaswant Thada was statrted by Maharaja Jaswant Singh (II) himself but it could not be completed during his life time. The work was completed in 1906A.D., during the reign of his son Maharaja Sardar Singh. This beautiful building looks like a fairytale castle in the midst of the clouds. The best of the three buildings of Jodhpur- Mehrangarh, Umed Bhawan and Jaswant Thada, are living symbols of bravery and grandeur of Jodhpur in the medieval and modern era.This castle sings the music of the morning with dawn, and looks like a messenger of calm and peace in moon light. The building is made on a platform of red sandstone. It has pictures of the Marwar rulers.

    Ahada Hingola Ki Chhatri

    When Rao Ranmal was killed in 1488 A.D., Maharana Kumbha sent his nobels, Akka Sisodia and Ahada Hingola to take the charge of Marwar State. After 15 years, Rao Jodha killed Akka Sisodia and Ahada Hingola and regained control over Mandore. Ahada Hingola's memorial was later built on a small hill in the battle field itself. Later the prime minister of Jodhpur, Pratap Singh converted it into a huge memorial in 1912 .This cenotaf is situated near Balsamand lake, on a very high platform, but has no inscription, statue or any other symbol left on it.

    Cenotaph of Amar Singh Rathore

    Amar Singh Rathore (1613-44 A.D.) was elder son of Maharaja Gajsingh of Jodhpur. After he was disinherited and exiled by his family, he entered the Mughals' service. His legendary bravery and battle prowess resulted in elevation to a high rank in the imperial nobility and personal recognition by the emperor, who made him the subedar (governor) of a region that was directly ruled by the emperor himself, Nagaur. In 1644, he was enraged by an attempt by the emperor to levy a fine on him for an unauthorized absence. In the emperor's presence, he stabbed and killed Salabat Khan, who had been asked to collect the fine. He is celebrated in some popular ballads of Rajasthan, Western Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. His Cenotaph is situated at Nagaur headqarters near Ginani Talao.

    Cenotaph of Jayappa

    Jayappaji Rao Scindia (1720-55A.D.) also known as Jayappa Dada Sahib, was a Maratha general. He ruled Gwalior State from 1745-55, succeeding his father Ranoji Rao Scindia who had founded it. He was killed by two Rathore Rajputs adherents of Maharaja Vijay Singh of Jodhpur at before the walls of Nagaur fort on 25 July 1755, after entanglement in the affairs of Jodhpur. He was succeeded by his son Jankoji Rao Scindia, killed at the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761. His memorial cenotaph was built in Tausar village near Nagaur town. This is in good condition even today. A shivlinga is established in the shrine.

    Other Historical cenotaphs

    A red sandstone dome near the domes of the queens in Panchkunda is called Brahmin Devta Ki Chhatri. The magnificient carvings on the dome have gods, godesses and animals on them. It is said that on completion of Mehrangarh fort, some religious rites were performed. That time, the heart of a Brahmin was offered to the holy fire. A memorial of this Brahmin, the dome is now damaged and the inscription on it missing.

    One of the domes in Kaga is that of Maharaja Jaswant Singh's Prime Minister Raj Singh Kumpawat. On an occassion, Maharaja Jaswant Singh was caught by an evil spirit. The spirit said, "I'll leave the king only if an equally brave person sacrifices himself". The prime minister offered to sacrific and beheaded himself. Maharaja Jaswant Singh built this grand dome in Kaga. Standing on a high platform, this memorial is of red sandstone with a white marble statue and an inscription on it. The dome of Maharaja Man Singh's military commander Indra Raj Singhvi is located on the way from Nagori Gate to the Mehrangarh fort. A statue and an inscription were also put in the memorial that time, which has been damaged today.

    Man Singh's maternal uncle, Shyam Singh's memorial can be seen on the left of the main door 'Jaipole' of the fort. Shyam Singh was the Thakur of Rakhi and Jojhawar and died fighting when Jaipur and Bikaner armies jointly attacked Jodhpur. It has an inscription stating 9 day of August month in 1854.Inside the fort, adjacent to the wall is the memorial of Kirat Singh Sodha, Chief of Jasol Thakur. Maharaja Man Singh built this memorial. Before the steep path to the fort, there is a dome on the left known as Dhanna Bhiyan Veeron Ki Chhatri. Maharaja Ajit Singh built this memorial.

    Opposite the old stadium, two domes of Gora Dhai exist. She was governess of Maharaja Ajit Singh. She committed Sati when her husband died on 18 May, 1704. In her memory Maharaja Ajit Singh constructed this Chhatri on 21 Aug. 1711. Made on six pillars, this Chhatri earlier had the statues of Gora Dhai and her husband. The new dome was built the district authorities in 20th century.

    There are many cenotafs of Singhvis near Akhaisagar. Akhaisagar was constructed by Bhim Singh's commander Akhai Raj Singhvi. After his death his memorial cenotaf was made here only. Indra Raj's son Fateh Raj was Maharaja Man Singh's diwan. After Fateh Raj's death, his dome was also built near those of his father and uncle.Opposite Baldev temple is another dome, near the domes of Indra Raj, Gul Raj and Fateh Raj, that of Singhvi Bhim Raj.

    Sufi Shrines

    Nagaur has the pride of early founding of Sufi shrines. One of the earliest Sufis to come to Nagaur was Sultan Tarkin, whose shrine was established during Hindu rule. After Khwaja Moinuddin established the Chishti Sufi order at Ajmer one of his disciples, named Hamiduddin, came to Nagaur. Hazrat Hamiduddin accommodated some Hindu principles in his teachings— he became a strict vegetarian and lovingly reared a cow in his shrine. Hindus worship him as "Tar Kishanji". His shrine is situated at Nagaur district head quarters.

    The Sufi shrine of Abban Shah (also known as jalan ro Pir) in Jalor is considered particularly significant for musicians: it is believed that this deity cures 'musical ills' and specific deficiencies in musical perform¬ance or skill. There is a jal tree in the shrine, the leaves of which are said to have a healing effect on the voice. The shrine is most often used for regaining the singing voice, which breaks after puberty.


  • Share On Social Media:
  • Historical Hindu Temples in Marwar

     21.08.2017
    Historical Hindu Temples in Marwar

    Historical Hindu Temples in Marwar


    The earliest phase of architectural activity was the offshoot of the virile architectural movement initiated and nurtured during the Gupta period. This tradition continued in the region for centuries. Chouhans, Pratihars, Parmars and Rathores erected thousands of temples in this desert area. Osian, Bhinmal, Dadhimata, Kekind, Kiradu, Varah Shyam and Shiwada temples are the good examples of that perod. By about 700 A.D., all over India, a number of divergent experimental temple shapes had given rise and way to certain viable and almost universal prototypes. Almost uniformly now the temple consisted of a square or rectangular sanctum with a porch in front or, occasionally, a mandapa either attached to the sanctum via a vestibule (antarala) or forming a separate but appurtenant structure in front of the sanctum.

    From many points of view the further development beyond this stage and till about 1000 A.D. represents the most important and the most consequential phase in the history of temple-building in India. For after 1000 A.D. or so it was only a matter of carrying on along lines already firmly etched; the most fascinating part consists of the first tentative and modest prototypes developing into the initial monumental edifices which started being erected from about 950 A.D.

    This development from Parashurameshvar to Lingaraja, all at Bhubaneshvar in Orissa, from the early and small temples at Kanchipuram to Brihadlshvar (at Thanjavur) and Naresar (near Gwalior) to Kandariya (at Khajuraho) is echoed in the case of Rajasthan in the progression from the earlier temples at Osian to those at Kiradu west of Barmer. One feels inclined to question Kiradu's being mentioned in the context of the other undeniably far more formidable agiants, let us not loose sight of the fact of the desert's limited resources as also of the fact of Kiradu having remained rather under-rated, of which more, later. While most developments were thus in this continuum of from small to big, regional stylistic preferences and patronage made for quite some differences, too. Barring some exceptions, it was generaliy a spaced out and gradual movement from a Parashurameshvar (650 A.D.) to a Mukteshvara (C 950 A.D.) to a Raja Rani (C 1025 A.D.) and, more characteristically, to a Lingaraja (C 1100 A.D.) as in the case of Orissa, or, from the Osian to Kekind to Kiradu via Nagda as in Rajasthan. Though most of the temples have common features, a careful study of the architectural details presented in these temples makes one to conclude that two groups of temples existed in Rajasthan during the pre-medieval and post-medieval periods. One group included in it Sun temples, Harihar temple and Mahavir temple at Osia, Vishnu temple at Mandor, Vishnu temple at Buchkala, Kameshwar temple at Auwa, Harshnath temple at Sikar, the temple at Nadole, the Sun temple, called Budhdit in Kota area and several others of this type in Mehrangarh, Chittaurgarh etc.

    All these temples, range in point of antiquity from the pre medieval to the post-medieval period. Most of these temples stand on a high, moulded platform with very few exceptions.These temples are mostly Latina in form. Standing on a platform as they do, these are predominently 'tri-anga' on plan. The platform (Jagati) of these temples is generally constituted by an amplified Vedi bandha, sometimes showing a decoration of large niches at intervals on the Kumbha. The Mula-prasada has, as a rule, no pitha. The door frame of all such temples is very richly decorated. The figural and foliate ornamentation are both rich and varied. All the above, in brief, applies to the early temples of the 1st group. In the middle type of temples, the decoration of pillars is finer and in the door-frame a few new shakhas like the vyala sakhas are introduced and these cover the whole door-frame. The temples at Auwa and Bhundana amply illustrate this characteristic feature.

    Beginning modestly in the 8th century as the local rulers of Mandore and Jalore, the Pratiharas rose to imperial status in the 9th and Bhoja-I shifted his capital to Kannauj after his accession to the throne in 836 A.D. though the Pratiharas maintained their links with Rajasthan. The wealth which (the early temples at Osian, Abaneri and Chittaurgarh represent remains unparalleled and along wiln some temples of the 10th century they form an invaluable corpus for anyone seeking to study the phenomenon of the transformation which the temple in North India underwent during 8th to 10th centuries.

    Osian, in particular, offers a complete series of temples built over four centuries starting with the 8th of Abaneri only the shell of othe sanctum remains-the makeshift mandapa being of later erection-along with the tiered terrace on which a wonderful and large temple unit must have once stood. The devolution of the Pratihara style in Central India and Rajasthan went along parallel lines. In Rajasthan also the progression from Osian to Kekind-Harshanath-Rajorgarh, though substantial, was still within the bounds of legitimate evolution.

    This transition also occurred over about a century and a half, from C 800 A.D; to C 950 A.D.The temples of southern Rajasthan also conformed to the Osian-Kekind continuum upto a point of time. Thus, the Kameshvara at Auwa near Pali (C 850 A.D.) had, despite an ornate two-storeyed pyramidical superstructure, a distinct affinity with the 'proper' Gurjara Pratihara lineage.

    The same may be said of Varman (C 875 A.D.) located even further to the south, and the Lakuleesh at Ekiingjl (872 A.D.) north of Udaipur.If the temples of the Osian group are one stage removed from the Gupta models and those of the Kekind type, two, then, these temples are three stages so removed and well on the way to giving rise to the Chandella and Kachchhapaghata norms on the one hand, figuratively as well as geographically, and the Solanki one, on the other.

    The Someshvara at Kiradu built around 1000 A.D. is important as it is, perhaps, the last major surviving example of a viable admixture of the Gurjara Pratihara and the emerging Solanki features: it manages to combine the strength of the former with the delicacy of the latter. It represents, perhaps, the last successful stand of the Gurjara Pratihara vogue before the flamboyant Solanki one will appear to take everything in its sweep. Of the group of significant temples at Kiradu, it may also be said that they have, unfortunately, remained rather underrated. In fact they are as rewarding, if not more, than the famous Modhera temple in Gujarat which was erected soon after, around 1025 A.D. In sculplure, particularly, Kiradu scores over Modhera. Kiradu in fact possesses some of the finest post-1000 A.D. sculpture in India.

    Having thus distinguished the Pratihara style of Rajasthan (Maha-Maru) from that of the lemple of upper Gujarat and south-western Rajasthan of the 8th-9th centuries (Maha-Gurjara), Dhaky then goes on to draw a demarcation line between the two and describe, first, a Maha-Gurjara foray into the Maha-Maru domain (as seen at Osian, Merta Road and Harsha near Bilara, in the 10th century) and then, a Maha-Maru rejoinder (as witnessed at Kiradu, Bhinmal, Chandravati and Ahar, at the close of the 10th century.) It is out of this clash or "embrace" of the 'virile and handsome'. With due deference to Dhaky it may perhaps be permissible to suggest that inspite of differences in terms of some details, the developments in temple building In Rajasthan and Gujarat over C 700- C 1000 A.D. do not merit to be regarded as two contrary and clashing movements but rather as two neighbouring and parallel developmems progressing by degrees from similar starting points to the same denounement.

    To this line of thinking the two movements will appear to be basically congruent at various stages in their careers. Roda, even though spartan in comparison, answers Osian; Muni Bawa, Kekind, Trinetreshvara and Kota; Jagat, while Miodera following close on the heels of Kiradu represents the ultimate and utter triumph of the Solanki features all over Gujarat and over most areas of Rajasthan, too, in an age when politically also the Soliinkis came to hold sway over southern Rajasthan. The period from 1000 A.D. onward saw in Rajasthan supremacy of certain Rajput powers like the Chauhans of Sakambhari, Sikar, Ajmer and Nadol; the Parmars of Abu and the Guhilas of Dungarpur, Banswara, Khed and Mewar, under whom the architectural activity found its expression in temples of various faiths and styles. Bhatis of Jaisalmer, the Rathors of Marwar, the Yaduvanshis of East Rajasthan and Badgujars etc. also encouraged temple activities. The post 1000 A.D. period is, by contrast, much less exciting because it is all so predictable- the essential features are all fixed and the structures, too, are all, more or less, copies of a model. Elsewhere in Rajasthan nothing much of interest seems to have taken place unless we take that the monuments were pillaged or razed to the ground.

    Chauhan Vigraharaja IV's college at Ajmer was indeed thus converted into the Dhai-din-ka-Jhonpra. Topkhana at Jalore offers another example. Of the post-1300 A.D. or Rajput period also we do not have to speak at any length. The massive and extensive 'Chaumukha' temple at Ranakpur (l438 A.D.) is, however, a most remarkable monument. It is saved from the overripe feel of Delwara by virtue of its vast spaces and striking heights and the complex is also well served by its scenic location. In the 17th century several good architects worked at Merta, Pali, Jalore, Nagaur, etc. This is borne out from the epigraphs available from these places. To quote a few instances, from an epigraph dated V.S. 1665from Kekind onformation available about the sutradhara Todara. The epigraph from Merta dated V.S. 1677 mentions in a sutradhara Suja. From an epigraph at Jalore dated V.S. 1683, we have a reference to sutradhara Uddharan and his sons Todara, Isar, Taha, etc.

    Sculptural work in Temples

    The earlier sculptural works of the times of the Mauryas, the Shungas and the Kushans left their impact in the blending of the plastic art of the country in the later ages to such a high perfection that the half closed elongated eyes puffed and highly developed breasts, the slim waists, the broad hips, transparent draperies, rich and intricate jewellery, various styles of coiffeurs, swinging pendents from the ears, and leaning curvature of the body as a whole all characterstics assembled into a splendrous synthesis in the classical renaissance. Through a continuity of a thousand years from Maurya's to Gupta's various foreign races came into the country. The north-western border of Rajasthan was the only way for the attacks of the barbarian hordes— The Hunas, Parthians, Seythians and Shakas. The Central Asian Turks ousted the wild tribes from Afganistan and Northern Punjab, who also in turn entered Rajasthan and settled at various places. It became necessary, for the local inhabitants to maintain certain cohesive order of relation, based on Dharma. The invocations of God, through construction of temples, became necessary. As time passed the social assimilation of the Hunas, the Gurjaras and the Rajputs resulted in the acceptance of Hinduism, and faith in the supreme, which culturally led to the worship of various forms of deities such as Shiva, Shakti, Vishnu, Surya, Ganesha and their respective consorts, children and attendants. The temples built by the Gurjara-Pratiharas at Abaneri and Nakti Mata temple in Jaipur district, and Osian in Marwar, are the clear evidence of their high aesthetic taste. In spirit, in the poetic symbolism, in the idealistic anatomy of human figures, in the expression through the medium of amorous and erotic themes, the sculptures in the above temples may fairly be said as the legacy of the Gupta traditions.

    Sculpture of this period has iconographical importance and the images have dynamic artistic movements, the innocent divine vulgarity, stupendous forms and the action of the chisel. The chisel of the sculptor moved from simplest forms of the earlier temples of Osian and Mandore and went through the intricate decorations, exquisite fineness at Kiradu and reached its zenith in Delwara temples of Abu and Ranakpur. Beautifully erected temples at Osian, Buchkala and Mandore (Jodhpur district), Goth-Manglod and Kekind (Nagaur district) and Bhinmal and Shiwada (Jalore district) were not only full of vigour and poise but were also gems of architecture. Brahmani Mata temple is also a post Gupta period at Nagaur.

    Pratihars also constructed new temples and rebuilt the Gupta's temples but unfortunately these monuments suffered heavily at the hands of early Muslim hordes. Parmaras built the group temples of Kiradu (Barmer district), Vishnu temple and Sanskrit Paathshala (Jalore district). These temples are superb creations of that time. Chauhans built Somnath temple and Nadole temple (Pali district) and Sanchore, Raamseen and Sundhamata temples (Jalore district). These temples are known for their sculptured decoration and architectural richness. Rathores built many temples all over Marwar. Banshiwale ka Mandir at Nagaur, Chaturbhuj temple at Merta, temples of Ghanshyamji, Gangshyamji, Kunj Bihariji, Raj Ranchhodji at Jodhpur and many more other are the prominent temples built by Rathores.

    Erotic scenes play a most prominent role in Indian art. A beautiful woman was generally regarded at the highest bliss to be hoped for on the earth as well as in the lower heavens. Kamakala (the art of sex) was considered to be one of the sixty four arts, therefore, as a part of education it was openly shown through sculptures in sexual poses even on walls of temples. The depictions of Kamashastra, as a matter of fact, opened a way for the development of music, dance and painting. In the absence of any of these it was difficult to reach the mystery of the 'Rasa'. Hence the sculptor was obliged to carve the figures of the Yakshas and Yakshinis, and Gandharvas (the heavenly musicians), types of ladies and various dancing poses all around the walls of the temples.

    The cult of Shaktas emphasised on the worship of phallus and vagina for attainment of salvation and the concept consequently inspired the artist to carve out poses of sexual exercises and the numerous beautiful poses of females in nudity. The Gods were also shown with their consorts in various amorous poses.The nude and seminude representations have also been found on the temples of Marwar at Osian, Mandore, Kiradu, Chandrawati and Ranakpur.

    Hindu Temples of Pre-Rathore Period

    Osian

    Osian is situated 58 kms from Jodhpur. The temples at Osian exhibit a wide range of rich variety and excellence of medieval sculpture. The earliest temples erected by the Abhira kings are those of three Harihar temples of 8th century. Incarnations of Vishnu, Krishna's life, Gods of the Vedic hymns-vayu, Chandra, Surya, Kubera, Indra, Varuna, the battle between the Gods and Asuras, the Navgrahas are elaborately sculptured on the outer walls of the temples. In the Jain temple of Mahavir, there is an inscription of Vatsa Raj of the Gurjara Pratihar dynasty who, in the middle of eighth century, established Gurjara supremacy in the cities of Osian, Bhinmal and Mandore. The temple dedicated to Mahavir comprises of a richly decorated Toran leading to an open porch a closed hall and the sanctum. The Sun temple show the height of the power of Gurjars who enshrined the God 'Sun' brought from Central Asia.

    The Sachiya Mata temple very late, according to the inscripions in the temple of V.S. 1236-34-45, has been disfigured by rennovations and ail sorts of paints. At Osian many temples with fine sculptures attract the visitors. Two sculptures particularly attract the visitors - one depicts a daughter of the Abhiras with her charming poise and attractive body. The second sculpture is that of a woman with a bow, with her ''proud defiant face bent backwards to complete the curving arch of her body.'' There are sculptures found at many other places also untouched by the analyst. No doubt, the State is replete with specimens of frescoes, paintings, sculptures and the like yet many of the specimens were destroyed during the course of numerous invasions 'the Sword arm of India' had to face from time to time.

    Kiradu (Barmer District)

    The dilapidated temples of 11-12 centuries are situated about 124 miles from Jodhpur and 16 miles north-west of Banner. An inscription of V.S. 1219 incised on the porch wall of The temple of Someshwar reveals that Sindhu Raj Parmar was the chief of Marwar. The other two inscriptions of 1209 and 1235 show that Solankis of Gujrat- Kumarpal and Bhimdeva were the rulers of Marwar and that the old name of the place was Kiratkupa. Someshwar temple is the biggest of all the other four smaller shrines of Shiva, and Vishnu. The vase and flower motif, carved on pillars, is best seen in the main temple of Someshwar. The exterior of the shrine consists of various scenes from the Krishna's life and Ramayana. The Siva temple close by also presents scenes from the Ramayana. A number of fragmentary pieces have been exhibited in the Sardar Museum at Jodhpur which are quite lovely and throw a light on the dresses and ornaments of that period.

    Sire Mandir, Jalore

    Sire Mandir, Jalore is lacated at Kanyagiri hills near Jalore town. This is a highest Nath chair of Marwar region, that is why it is called Sire Mandir. It is said that yogi Jallandharnath did meditation at this place. The place is also associated with certain miracles. Parmar king Rao Ratansingh built a Shiv temple here which is known as Rataneshwar Mahadev Mandir. Maharaja Mansingh of Jodhpur renovated this temple on suggestions given by hermit Ayas Dev Nath. A water reservior (Jhalara), two Wells (Nirmal Jalkoop and Chandankoop), meditation cave (Bhanwar Gupha), palaces for ladies and jents and other constructions can be seen even today.

    Jagnath Mahadeo Temlpe, Jalore

    This temple was constructed by Chauhan Pincess Rudal devi in the reign of his brother Samar singh (1182-1207). Many stone inscriptions pertaining to this event can be seen here. Chauhan ruler Chachag deo has mentioned about this temple in his stone inscription of V.S. 1326 at Sundha. This temple is located about 20 kms far from Jalor district head quarter.

    Apeshwar Mahadev temple, Ramseen

    Apeshwar Mahadev temple at Ramseen in Jalore district, was built in 13th century A.D. by Songara Chauhan rulers of Jalore. It is a chariot shaped temple. A five feet statue of Lord Shiva is worshipped in the temple. The temple has been renovated many times. In this process a large number of old statues have been destroyed.

    Varah shyam Temple, Bhinmal

    This is also a old temple. A seven feet high and 2.5 feet wide idole of Lord Varah (incarnation of lord Vishnu) is worshipped in the temple. This is a post Gupta idole and must be of Pratihara period of history.

    Sundha Mata Temple, Jaswantpura

    This "Shakt tantrik peeth" is said to be very old. It is located in a cave on Sundha hill in Jalore district. Now a statue of Chamunda Mata, carved on a cave wall is worshipped here. An adjoinig cave is known as Bhur-bhuvah-swah-eshwar temple and dedicated to Lakulish sect of Shaivism. An idole of Lord shiva is worshipped in this cave. A reference about this temple is available in Skand Purana of 7th centuray A.D.

    Rameshwar Mahadev Temple, Jodhpur

    The Rameshwar Shivalaya near Surajkund outside Chandpole is considered to be a Siddh peeth. It is said that the Shivling here is Jyotirmay Ling, which was brought and established here by a saint in 1250. The saint took eternal meditation here the memorial of which is still there in the verandah of the temple. During Rao Maldeo's reign in 1538, Seth Rama Maheshwari Mutha constructed a small temple here. In 1544, the Pathan soldiers of Sher Shah Suri attacked this temple. Maharaja Sur Singh renovated the temple in 1615 and also constructed Surajkund and a bathroom.In 1644 idols of Shiv Panchayat and other gods and goddesses were established here. The present temple was made by Maharaja Jaswant Singh in 1651. During Maharaja Ajit Singh's reign when Nawab Tewar Beig attacked the temple, Pujari Jagan Purush took the Jyotirlinga to his home. Many constructions were done in the temple during Maharaja Takhat Singh's reign in 1844 and Maharaja Jaswant Singh's reign in 1876. Renovation was also done during Maharaja Umed Singh's reign. Milk, sandalwood and Ved Mantras are offered to this Jyotirlinga.

    Hindu Temples of Rathore Period

    There are many temples in Jodhpur city, built under Rathore rule but the temples of Kunj Behari, Ghanshyam, Balkrishna and Ranchhodji, Ramdeoji and Gajanandji are the most well known. Other temples are Tija Maji ka Mandir, Nazirji ka mandir and Deonathji ka mandir (Mahamandir).

    Gang Shyamji Temple

    Rao Ganga (1515 - 31 A.D.) was married to Padamawati, daughter of Rao Jagmal of Sirohi. The statue of Krishna that Jagmal worshipped was very much liked by Princess Padmawati. After marriage, while leaving Sirohi, Padamawati asked her father for the statue but Jagmal had to refuse because he also loved this statue very much. Then Padmawati asked Gangaji to take the statue from Jagmal in dowry. Jagmal gave this statue to Gangaji. He established the statue in Mehrangarh fort and it came to be known as GangShyamji. After some a big temple was built for it in Old Dhan Mandi which is now known as GangShyamji temple.In 1679, Aurangzeb's military commander Tebar Beig destroyed the temple and constructed a mosque. Maharaja Ajit Singh (1707-24 A.D.) made five temples at that place. Gang Shyamji Temple was surrounded by four other temples. In 1760 Maharaja Vijai Singh renovated it and converted it into a big temple. In 1929, Maharaja Umed Singh again renovated the temple and got gold work done on the main door.

    Ghanshyamji Temple

    Ghan Shyamji temple is located in Juni Mandi, near Gang Shyamji temple. When Gang Shyamji was brought to Jodhpur, after a few days in the fort, the statue was kept in Ghan Shyamji temple. Present Ghanshyam Ji temple was built by Maharaja Ajit Singh. Having large domes, this temple is made of red sandstone. A stone inscription in the temple gives the date of its foundation, as 1718 A.D. Inside the temple, the stones have SriKrishna and Gopis carved on them.

    Kunj Bihari Temple

    Kunj Bihari Temple in Katla Bazar was built by Maharaja Vijai Singh's Paswan Gulab Rai in 1779 A.D.; She was a Vaishnav follower of Gokuliya Gosains. Kunj Bihari seems to be a replica of Ghanshyamji temple. The top of the temple and its entrance are examples of architectural excellence. On left of the entrance are massive elephants. On the entrance is a statue of Meera facing towards Lord Krishna in Garbhgriha (Central hall). This statue was earlier established in Sita Ram temple in Kabutron ka Chowk. The Sita Ram temple and Hanuman temple of Mandore are said to be parts of Kunj Bihari temple and expenditure of these two is also borne by the Kunj Bihari temple's funds. This is one of the grand temples of Jodhpur. Pooja is performed six times a day. Special functions are arranged on Janmashtmi, Annkut, Diwali, Holi, Radha Ashtmi etc. The temple gates are opened twice a day from 6.00 a.m. to 12.00 noon and from 6.00 pm till midnight.

    Raj Ranchhodji Temple

    Raj Ranchhodji temple was built by Queen Jadechi Rajkanwar after the death of her husband Maharaja Jaswant Singh. Rajkanwar was the daughter of king Jamvibha. At the age of nine, in 1854 A.D. She was married to Prince Jaswant Singh. Jaswant Singh did not go for the marriage himself to Jamnagar, but sent his sword, with which the princess got married. After marriage the princess came to Jodhpur and then went to Jamnagar after a few days. After four years at the age of thirteen she came to Jodhpur. Once entering the fort, she never came out of it. That time this temple was made outside the city wall on a high dune near Baiji Ka Talab. By including the first name of the queen 'Raj' this temple became Raj Ranchhodji Temple. It was completed in 1905.

    Rasik Bihari Temple

    Rasik Bihari temple is known more as Nainiji temple. Made of red and white stone, this temple is constructed on a 17 feet high rectangular platform on Udai Mandir road. The Sabha Mandaps are made on red sandstone pillars. The Garbhgriha is surrounded by a gallery (Parikrama), made of white stones. The temple has statues of Shiv Panchayatan and Sun on seven horses. The open space between the temples has a white marble statue of Kamnandi. According to the inscription on it, it was brought by Maharaja Jaswant Singh in 1885 A.D. The temple is devoted to Rasik Bihari (Lord Krishna) and Goddess Radha. It has statues of Lord Vishnu, Garuda and Hanumanji on both sides of its doors. On one part of the main door Adi Vinayak Ganeshji can be seen. This temple has been taken over by the Archaeological Survey of India.

    Mahamandir

    Maharaja Man Singh built this temple to show respect towards his guru Aayas Dev Nath. This huge temple is located at some distance out of the old city near Merti Gate. The foundation for this temple was laid on 9th April 1804 and it was completed on 4th February 1805, with a budget of 10 lakh rupees. The main temple is made on a massive platform and approximately 100 artistic pillars support the ceiling. The Garbhgriha has a white marble seating space with a statue of Jalandhar Nathji on it. The interior portion has beautiful pictures of 84 yogasanas and famous Nath yogis. The main dome of the temple is surrounded by other smaller domes. Two beautiful palaces have also been made in the temple compound. In one resided Nathji Maharaj and the other was for the holy spirits of earlier yogis. There is a large bed in this palace and it is said that the holy spirits come and rest on this.The carving in the temple and palaces was done from a gold instrument and still retains its beauty. The designer glasses wall paintings and shell polish of the temple have a timeless beauty. At the ground floor of the palaces there are stables and Toshakhana etc. Some important inscriptions have also been found from the temple. One inscription says that it was the duty of the temple to save the life of anybody who took refuge here. One part of the temple has the cremation ground of hermits. It also has some memorials. Mahamandir has a wall surrounding it and giving it the look of a fortess.

    Udai Mandir

    Maharaja Man Singh built Udai Mandir for Bhim Nath near Merti gate. It is a great building from architectural point of view. It has big basements and two tunnels, one going to Mahamandir and the other to the fort. The left of the temple has Udayeshwar Shiv Temple with a well nearby. This well was in use for around 150 years, but later it was buried.A few yards away from Udai Mandir is a haveli called 'Udai Mandir ka Aasan.' The married Nath hermits stayed in this haveli. There are two gates of this haveli and it has three storeys.

    Sheetla Mata temple

    Kaga Sheetla Mata temple is approximately 200 years old. The statue which is now seen here was earlier established in Mehrangarh fort. It is said that Maharaja Vijay Singh's son Sardar Singh died of measles. Maharaja ordered that the statue be destroyed under elephant's feet and thrown in a deserted place. The ministers threw the statue in the hills of Kaga. One day the wife of a gardener dreamt that the statue be established there only. The lady did as she dreamt and slowly the followers kept increasing. People from nearby areas started worshipping the goddesses methodically.When the King heard of this, he wanted to bring the goddess back to the fort, but the royal priest said that it was not possible. Then the King went walking to the temple with his family and begged for pardon. He built a big temple here.

    Hall of Deities

    The hall of Deities at Mandore, was built during the reign of Maharaja Ajit Singh and his son Maharaja Abhay Singh. Before carving the statues on rocks in this hall, their models were made on small stones, which have now been kept in the Mandore museum. This hall is supposed to be the residence of 33 crore gods and godesses. One huge rock has been cut to make 15 statues including those of Chamundaji, Kankali (Mahishasur Mardini), Gosainji, Rawal Mallinathji, Pabuji, Ramdeo, Hadbu, Meha, Goga, Bramhaji, Suryaji, Ramchandrji, Krishna, Mahdeo and Jalandhar Nathji.

    Kala Gora Bhairon : Near the Hall of Dieties are the statues of Kala - Gora Bhairon and Vinayakji. These three statues have also been carved on a huge rock, during the reign of Maharaja Ajit Singh (1707 - 24). Kala Bhairon is on the left while Gora Bhairon has been carved on the right with women fanning them. In the centre is Vinayakji. Both the Bhairon statues have four arms, holding a dagger, Trishul, drum and a skull. Over the heads are huge umbrellas with their mount and a dog under their feet. Gora Bhairon is offered dry fruits and sweets while Kala Bhairon is offered meat and liquor. The Vinayak statue between the two is holding Laddu, Lotus, Sword and an axe in four hands. Riddhi and Siddhi have been carved on his sides, a snake around his neck and his mount, a mouse near his feet. Many more temples in modern time have been built in Jodhpur city. "Shanishchar Ji Ka Than" on the road from Jalori Gate to Siwanchi Gate, "Ganesh Temple at Ratanada", "Shiv Temple at Ratanada", "Kharanana Devi Temple" are very famous among them.

    Temples at Meharangarh fort

    Rathore rulers of Jodhpur erected many historical temples in Mehrangarh fort. Descrption has been given in a separate article- "The Forts and Palaces of Marwar".




  • Share On Social Media:
  • Historical Jain Temples, Mosques & Churchs in Marwar

     21.08.2017
    Historical Jain Temples, Mosques & Churchs in Marwar

    Historical Jain Temples, Mosques & Churchs in Marwar

    Jain temples

    Western Rajasthan was a big center of Jainism activities in medieval period. So a grand chain of beautiful and historical Jain temples also flourished in marwar. There are eleven well known Jain temples in Jodhpur city for Shantinath, Gaudi Parasnath, Muni Suvrata Swami, Kunthunath Koladi, Sambbavanath, Mahavir Swami, Kesariyanath, Parsavanath (Muthaji ka mandir) and Bheru Bag Parsvanath; there is also Digambar Jain Mandir. Of these, the first is the oldest. The present idol of Shantinath, however, is dated V.S. 1617 (1560 A.D.).

    Nakoda Parshvanath Jain Temple

    The temple of Nakoda Parshvanath is about 10 kilometers South of Balotra and is surrounded by bare hills which form its natural background. Nakoda is an ancient place. In the 3rd century A.D., there existed two cities- Virampur and Nakoda each 20 miles apart, founded by Virsen and Nakorsen respectively. In both the places, there were big Jain temples of 52 cells and their consecration ceremonies, were performed, at the hands of renowned Acharya Sthulibhadra but those temples were destroyed by Alam Shah. The consecration ceremony took place in V.S. 62 at Nakoda, at the hands of Acharya Mantung suri. In V.S. 909 (852 A.D.),there are said to be 2700 houses of Jains in Virampur and the idol which was kept hidden in Naghrida (Kalidrah), was installed in V.S. 1429 (1372 A.D.) at Virampur or Nakoda. This main idol at Nakoda is of Lord Parshvanath. It is 23 inches in height and black in colour. It is very attractive with its tutelary deity Bhairava. The people from far and near, visit the shrine and make offerings to Nakoda Bhairava, on ful¬filment of their desires. Besides this main temple, there are the temples of Rikhabdev (Lachi Bai's temple) and Shantinath, besides 35 idols in the underground celt. There are few extensive Dharmashalas, in the compound of the temples, for the pilgrims to stay in. Every year, a grand fair is held on Pash Badi 10, the birthday of Lord Parshvanath.

    Ranakpur Chaumukha Jain Temple

    Ranakpur is 22 kilometers from Falna Junction on the Delhi-Ahmedabad line of the western railway. Jain temples of Ranakpur are located in a complex. The central temple in the complex is called Chaumukha and is an interesting example of the richness of carving and sculptural art in medieval Rajasthan. The temple covers an area of 40,000 square feet, has 29 halls and contains 1,444 pillars; no one pillar is like another in the detail and wealth of the delicate carvings that adorn all of them. The massive and extensive 'Chaumukha' temple at Ranakpur (l438 A.D.) is a most remarkable monument. The Jain shrines at Ranakpur were strongly influenced by the Circular lotus motif style of the ceilings and pillars of Abu temples. The four faced shrine is dedicated to Rishabhadeva the Jain Tirthankara and there are subsidiary shrines around the main temple. The entire structure is erected on a lofty basement surrounded by a high wall. There are sixty six small cells, inside the boundary wall, adorned with sculptures. Each cell or shrine has got a spire over it. The ceilings, of the structure of the temples, are intricately decorated with Carvings. The Parshvanath temple has got some erotic scenes carved on its exterior.

    Narlai Jain Temple

    Narlai is only 3 miles from Ghanerav. There are 11 temples among them, the Adishvar temple is said to be about 1000 years old. The eldest temple is of Suparshvanath (the seventh Jain Tirthankar) having sculptural art. The Neminalh temple on the hill is also famous. It is said that one of the hill temples was brought by a Yati, with his magical power. Round about SuparshvanathTpmple, there were existing once, 2700 houses but now they are all lying in ruins.

    Nadol Jain Temple

    About 7 miles from Narlai, there is an ancient place called Nadol where once resounded every evening 999 bells indicating 999 temples. There are 10 Jam temples, the famous being that of Lord Padma Prabhu(the sixth Tirthankar), the idol being consecrated in V.S. 1681, (1624 A.D.), by Jaimal, the minister of Maharaja Gaj Singh of Jodhpur. The temple is architecturally beautiful. The popular Jain verses of Laghu Shanti Stavan, were composed here in V.S. 300 (243 A.D.) by Acharya Manadev Suri. Col. Tod, the famous historian of Rajasthan, found ample material from this place including hand-written scriptures (which he took away with him), and the family trees of the popular kings Shrenik and Samprati.

    Varkana Jain Temple

    From Nadol, at a distance of about 5 miles, famous Jain temple of Varkana is situated. The temple is of Lord Parshvanath having 52 shrines. It was built in V.S. 1211 (1154 A.D.), with hand-some designs of carvings. The place is calm and quiet. There is a Jain Dharmashala for for the pilgrims to stay in. From Rani, this place is only 4 miles. Every year on Posh Badi 10, a fair is held within the precincts of the temple.

    Chandrawati Jain Temple

    The monumental site is five miles South of Abu Road station on the western railway line in Sirohi district. Prior to the possession of the Parmar rulers in 10-11th Century Chauhans ruled over the territory of Cliandrawali. Dharawarsh was a very brave and glorious ruler of the Parmar dynasty in 12th century. The old name of the place was "Chadaul" where there were about eighteen hundred Jain and Saivite shrines. Adinath temple may have been the best of all others. The temples were built time to time over a period of five hundred years from 5th Century to 10th century, by the Parmar and the Chauhan rulers. The famous historian Col. Tod for the first time in l9th Century, made a Survey of the area and found ruins of 18 marble temple. Even now there exists a village in the name of "Chandoli," which is a variegated term of old chandrawati, in Sirohi district. Several images of Gods and Goddesses hava been found from the monument and a few have been put in the Government Museum, in the premises of the Governor house at Abu. Many other pieces of scuptures have been collected and stored at the site, by the Stale Archaeological department.Chandrawati is now all in ruins along the banks of the river of the Same name, and its past glory is found only in the broken pieces of Kinnaras, Yakshas and Yakshnis, Gandharvas, domes, columns and bracekets.

    Mosques

    So far as the mosques are concerned the earliest is at Amber, with a dated epigraph lodgd in it. All without any exception, whether big or small have big or small minarets, a hall, big or small for offering prayers and a pond for washing hands and feet before the visitors go in for offering prayers. About 1314 A.D., Ala-ud-din Khilzi, after a lengthy siege, captured Jalore fort from Kanhaddeo Chauhan, and a three-domed mosque, said to have been built by him, is still in good repair and daily use. There are many historical mosques in whole Marwar area. In 1294 A.D. Jalaluddin Firoz Khilji conquered Mandore. He built a mosque here in which an inscription of that time is still available. In 1544 A.D.

    Shershah Suri came to Jodhpur, after conquering Ajmer. He razed the temples at Jodhpur fort to ground and made a mosque there. Maldeo was succeeded by his son Chandrasen who was a brave and self respecting king, but could not win the support of his brothers and other Rajputs. Thus, the ruler became weak and Jodhpur was conquered by Akbar. Akbar's military general Hasan Kuli Khan immediately built a mosque on Jodhpur fort and deployed military on the boundaries.

    Ek Meenar Masjid, Gol Takia Masjid, Sodagaran Mohalla Masjid, Jama Masjid, Iqra Masjid, Eidgah Masjid, Jalorigate Masjid, Mohalla Nagauri Silawatan Masjid, Raza Masjid, Madina Masjid, Kayamkhani Masjid and Cheerghar Masjid are prominent mosques of Jodhpur city. In Chhodawat village of Bhopalgarh block of Jodhpur district, there is a 400 year old mosque. It is known as Kawaskhan's mosque. Peer Baba's mosques is situated in Basarli village of Balesar block.

    In 13th and 14th century, Nagaur was a prominent seat of Muslim rulers for a long time and many Mosques were built in Nagaur, Deedwana, Ladnu, Makrana and other sorrounding towns. In 1725 A.D., Takhat Singh, prince of Jodhpur became an independent ruler of Nagaur. He dismantled a lot of mosques and made Hindu buildings there. Colonel Todd wrote that he had declared death sentence for anybody who gave 'Ajaan' for Namaaj. The town wall of Nagaur is more than 4 miles in length, between 2 and 5 feet thick, and on the average 17 feet high. The battlements bear many Arabic and Persian inscriptions, obtained from mosques demolished by Maharaja Bakht Singh in order to repair breaches caused in warfare. Of the numerous religious edifices, two Hindu temples and a five-domed mosque are specially noteworthy.

    Churches

    Churches, the religious edifices of the Chritians for offering prayers on Sundays and other religious occasions have a set pattern of architecture. They give place to a conical flat structure in the front with a cross outside and a big hall inside for the congregation to offer prayers.Though these Churches are for Catholic and others and are named after prominent Christian Saints, they conform to a certain style of architecture, which is typically western. Those, which are Catholic are decorated from inside while others are not.

    The population of cristian community in Jodhpur state was 207 in 1881, 210 in 1891 and 224 in 1901 A.D. In 1901, 111 cristians were native, 58 Europians and 55 Eurassiana. Out of 111 native cristians, 44 were Presbyterians, 28 Roman Catholics and 27 belonged to the Church of England. The United Free Church of Scotland Missan has had a branch at Jodhpur city since 1885. The State is included in the Anglican see of the Bishop of Nagpur and the Roman Catholic Prefecture of Rajputana; the latter was established in 1891-92; is administered by the Capuchin Fathers of Paris, the Prefect Apostolic having his head quarters at Agra. With the increasing numbers of cristian population, many churches came in to existance. Sumer well Memorial church, Saint Theresa's Church, St. Patricks Church, St. Theresa's Catholic Church, 7th Day Adventist Church, St. Andrews hall and D road church are main church in Jodhpur. Many more churches also exist in Jalore and Nagaur districts.

    Sumer well Memorial Church

    Sumer well Memorial church Jodhpur was the first church opened in Marwar. It was open on 11 January 1927. It was the first church of Jodhpur. Maharaja Ummed Singh the then ruler of Jodhpur was the chief guest on this occassion. The building of Church is made of Chheetar stone and is a good example of rich architect. The whole Church is constructed in cross shape. Jodhpur Maharaja gave 2500 Pound sterlings. Maharani Badan Kunwari also gave 200 Pound sterlings for construction work. The build work was done under the supervision of Railway engineer E.E.V. Temperl. Dr. Theodor Arm dedicated this church to Doctor Sumer well.

    Saint Theresa's Church Jodhpur

    Saint Theresos Church was founded in 1934 A.D. It is a Catholic church. Its plan was prepared by famous architect G.A. Goldstra. The whole building of church is made of Chheetar stone. The cruce of church is standing in the left side of its entry gate, it was built in the memory of James Walston, the then prime minister of Jodhpur state. Father Zentilius was the first Padari of church. Maharaja Ummed Singh and Maharani Badan Kunwari donated a handsome amount to the church for its construction work.


  • Share On Social Media:
  • Historical Water Structures & Gardens in Erstwhile Princely state of Marwar

     21.08.2017
    Historical Water Structures & Gardens in Erstwhile Princely state of Marwar

    Historical Water Structures & Gardens in Erstwhile Princely state of Marwar


    Erstwhile Princely state of Marwar was situated in eastern part of Thar desert. There was no perennial river in the whole state. Luni was the longest river which could flow for a few days in rains only. Meethari, Jojari and Gunai Mata were the subsidiary rivers of Luni and could flow hardly for 15 days in a year. Sambhar, Deedwana and Pachpadra were natural lakes in the state but all natural lakes contained salty water which was brackish in test but good for producing salt.


    Lakes, Ponds and Wells

    Though Marwar was scarce of water but people were aware of its importance. They used to collect rain water in ponds and tanks in their houses as well as in fields and forests. Rulers, nobles and wealthy merchants of Marwar built many artificial lakes, water tanks, ponds, wells, step-wells and reservoirs through out the state.

    Bal Samand Lake

    Bal Samand lake is located on Jodhpur - Mandore road, 7 kms from Jodhpur. It was constructed in V.S. 1216 (1159 A.D.) by Parihar chief Balak Rao. Approximately one kilometer long, 50 meters wide and 15 meters deep this lake has been made by storing the rain water coming from the hills. Maharaja Sur Singh later constructed an artistic eight pillared palace with three entrance gates between this lake. He also constructed a Baradari and another small artistic palace near the lake. They have beautifully carved stones, polished with shells and have filigiree work. Near this 60 feet high palace, another small building was made by Sur Singh for his queen. It also had a garden for ladies. Jaswant Singh (II) later planted rose shrubs in this garden. Water was supplied to Gulab Sagar, Fateh Sagar and Sardar Sagar canals from this lake.

    Kaylana Lake

    Located eight kms West of Jodhpur, Kaylana lake was constructed in 1872 by Pratap Singh, the then Prime Minister of Jodhpur. It is spread over 84 square kilometers' area. Earlier this area had palaces and gardens made by Maharaja Bhim Singh and Maharaja Takhat Singh. These were destroyed to make Kaylana lake which takes care of the water supply to the city today also. Also known as Pratap Sagar, the area around this lake was full of wild boars and was a secured hunting place for the royal members. But it has not remained so with the increase in population. Near the lake is a Dak Bungalow of Irrigation department.

    Umed Sagar

    Umed Sagar dam near Kaylana Lake was constructed in 1933 by Maharaja Umed Singh. It is spread over an area of 27 square kilometers.

    Gulab Sagar

    Gulab Sagar water storage was constructed by Pasban Gulab Rai in 1788 A.D., who was a beloved mistress of Maharaja Vijay Singh. Earlier there was another source of water here, called 'Baori', which was converted into Gulab Sagar in the size of 150 x 90 meters. It is Located near Sardar Market in old city area, adjoining to Gulab Rai's palace. Its construction took eight years and a large amount of funds. It has two parts- the smaller one being known as the child of Gulab Sagar. It is said that this part was made in 1835, in the memory of Sher Singh, Gulab Rai's son. Gulab Sagar has carved stairs around it whose beauty can still be seen.

    Fateh Sagar

    Fateh Sagar was made near Merti Gate by Maharaja Vijay Singh in 1778. The size of this pond wis 140 x 75 meters. It was used to get water from its Southern canal linked with Bal Samand as well as Kaylana lake. Beside this is a temple named Ramanuj Kot, belonging to Ramanuj cult of Vaishnavs. This temple was constructed in 1866.

    Ranisar-Padamsar

    Ranisar was made in 1459 by Jodha's Queen Jasmade Hadi near Fateh Pole of Mehrangarh. Padmasar was made near it by Queen Padmini of Rao Ganga, daughter of Rana Sanga of Mewar.

    Tapi Baodi

    Tapi Baodi was constructed in 1675 by Tapoji Tejawat. It is 40 feet wide and 250 feet long and located at Hatdiyon Ka Chowk in Bhimji Ka Mohalla. It was constructed in four years with 72 thousand rupees. This longest Baodi of the city was the main source of water in Jodhpur city for more than three decades. It has six beautiful and artistic storeys.

    Jaswant Sagar Dam

    Maharaja Jaswant Singh constructed Jaswant Sagar dam in 1892 near Pichiyak village between Bilara and Bhavi villages of Jodhpur district. Five lakh and fifty thousand rupees were spent on its construction, while its renovation during the Seventh plan took one crore fifty three lakh rupees. The water from this dam is used for irrigating an area of 1780 hectares. The greenest part of Jodhpur receives water from this dam. Boating facilities have also been made available for tourists here.

    Shekhawatji ka Talab

    Shekhawatji ka Talab was constructed by Shekhawat Aantarang De, Queen of Jaswant Singh (I) 450 years back, a mile away from Merti Gate. Surrounded by hills on three sides, this pond is spread in an area of 1000 sq. feet and is approx. 20 feet deep, Jaswant Singh (I) also made a grand palace near it which served as their residence during rainy season. The pond is covered with walls made of red stone, which have stairs on three sides. It also has a Baodi in it. Its water was used in case of shortage of water in the pond.

    This pond has also been mentioned in the autobiography of Prime Minister Pratap Singh of Jodhpur. Maharaja Ram Singh of Jaipur had married Indra Kunwar, sister of Maharaja Takhat Singh and his cousin Kesar Kunwar (daughter of Prithvi Singh). His bridal procession (barat) had stayed in tents near this pond. Palaces of Maharaja Jaswant Singh have now been converted into temples. One of them is the Hanuman temple which also has idols of Lord Rama, Laxman, Sita and a huge Shivlinga. Above the pond is a large dome which is now with the Army. Another small dome can be seen in one corner of the temple, which has no inscription on it. A Satsang Bhawan is also made here a few decades ago.

    Akhaisagar

    Seven kms from Jodhpur, there are many cenotaphs of Singhvi Musahibs of erstwhile Marwar state near Akhaisagar. Akhaisagar was made by Bhim Singh's military commander Akhai Raj Singhvi. It is approximately thirty six feet deep and is formed by collecting the water coming from hills around. The centre of this pond has a stone measure which indicates the water level. Singhvi Akhairaj had no child. On a saint's advice he constructed this pond. After his death his memorial cenotaph was erected near this pond. A few other domes of Singhvis also exist. Akhai Raj's dome is facing Raghunath temple.

    Other Water Structures in in Jodhpur City

    Mahila Bagh stepwell (Baori) near Gulab Sagar was constructed by Gulab Rai in 1780. It is also called a Baodi with four-sided ghats. The Mahila or Mayla Bagh garden near it was also made by Gulab Rai. Later Huson General Hospital was opened in this garden and then a school. Artistic domes surround this step well. One of its parts remains covered with water and has beautiful gates under it. Five lakh rupees were spent on its construction. It was also connected to Gulab Sagar through a tunnel. The famous fair 'Lotiyon Ka Mela' was started after the construction of this Baori. In V.S. 1776, Sukh Dev Tiwari made a stepwell in the precincts of Mehrangarh fort, which is known by his name only. It is made between Vidyashala School and Singhodon ki Bari. Nowdays this place is used for funeral rites. It is an example of architectural excellence. Tuwar ji ka Zhalra was made by Badi Tuwarji, the Queen of Maharaja Abay Singh, in 1805.

    Besides these, there were many other baodis (step-wells) and talabs (ponds) in Jodhpur city, like Chand Baodi, Nai Sarak Baodi, Jalap Baodi, Mandore Baodi, Naparji ki Baodi Gorunda Baodi, Vyas Baodi, Chataniya ki Baodi, Sumnohra Baodi, Anara Baodi, Nainsi Baodi, Hathi Baodi, Dhai Baodi, Idgah Baodi, Kharbuja Baodi, Rajaramji ki Baodi, Vyas Baodi, Shiv Baodi, Panchwa Majisa ki Baodi, Ram Baodi, Raghunath Baodi, Jadeji Zhalra, Shri Nathji ka Zhalra, Gowardhan pond, Gangelav pond, Baiji ka Talab, Naya Talab, Neemla Well, Clock tower well, Gaushala well, lotwali well, Satyanarayan yati's well, Ladji's well, Navchowkiya well, Aasan well, Dauji well, Jaita well, Mutha well, Devkund, Golnadi, Motikund, Mansagar, Surajkund etc. Some of these water structures still exist but Many structures have been destroyed in last one century.


    Gardens and Bagechees

    Mandore Garden

    Mandore Garden is spread in an area of 82 acres. There are no definite clues to say how old this garden is but it surely existed during the reign of Rao Maldeo (1532-1572 A.D.).

    The ruler of Marwar state Rao Maldeo was married with a princess of Jaisalmer state, but he enjoyed his honeymoon with a Daodi (maid servent) instead of princess. When Rao Maldeo was returning to Jodhpur, the princess refused to go along with him. Rao Maldeo was very upset so he destroyed the Bada bag royal garden and cut down hundreds of trees and returned to Jodhpur. When Bhati Rao of Jaisalmer came to know about this incident, he sent his minister to take revenge. The Minister came to Jodhpur and stayed in Mandore garden. After 15 days he left the garden, putting an axe under each tree with a message that we are not like you, we don't cut the trees. The beauty of the garden has been captured on celluloid by many film makers. The fountains, especially the jet fountains are an all-time tourist attraction. One can reach the numerous pools by crossing a garden of Bougainvillea. People can sit in shade on one side of these small pools. These pools get the water of Nagadari River. Summer breeze near these pools gives a new life to people. Above this level is a natural pond known as Nagadari. The Nagpanchami and Veer puri fairs are organised in this garden since 17th century. Nagkunds are worshipped by people on Nag Panchami.

    Miyan Ka Bagh

    In 1643 A.D., the Maharaja Jaswant Singh (I) was called to Agra by Shahjahan, while Khwaja Farasat was sent here for Jodhpur's administration. Khwaja was unable to control the administration and was relieved of the charge in 1647, but he did not return to Agra. After his death, he was buried outside Chandpole gate and his memorial dome was made there. Aurangzeb built two 30 feet high towers here. Maharaja Sur Singh's daughter Inda Kanwar made a step well here, while Sur Singh developed a garden which came to be known as Miyan ka Bagh. Two tombs are made inside the memorial, protected by iron bars. It is said that the vegetables of this garden used to be famous for their size. It is said that once when the prince of Kashmir came here to marry the Jodhpur princess, the ruler of Jodhpur ordered to get one cartful of cauliflower from this garden. The sellers that time charged one silver coin for each bunch of the vegetable. A small Shiva temple can also be seen in this garden.

    Ummed Garden and Zoo

    Like Mandore garden, Umed garden also covers an area of 82 acres. Developed by Maharaja Umed Singh, it has green lawns, towering Ashoka trees, roses and seasonal flowers, museum, fountains, library and a zoo. Five gates were constructed in different directions to enter the garden. The zoo in the garden was inaugurated in 1935 A.D. by the then Viceroy Willingdon. During that time it had a lion, tiger, zebra, ostrich and an emu. A separate cage was made for monkeys. In 1978 'Walk-in Avery' was made where one could see different types of birds. A large cage for bears opposite the Avery, sea birds behind it, pigeons in the cages near it, crocodiles, foxes, deers, lions, leopard etc. educate children and mesmerise people with nature's beauty. Various enclosures of the Zoo were mostly situated on the peripheral portion of the public park. After independence, the management of Umaid Udhyan and the Jodhpur Zoo (situated within) was entrusted to the Superintendent, Garden Department of the Govt. of Rajasthan. Subsequently the management of Jodhpur Zoo was transferred from the Garden Department to the Forest Department in 1956. Onward from 1956; the Jodhpur Zoo is being managed by the forest department of Rajasthan Government. A Public Library, named Sumer Sarvajanik Vachnalaya and a museum named Sardar Sangrahalaya were also opened within the park area. Now almost all wild animals have been transferred to Machia Park.

    Nehru Park

    Spread in an area of 14 acres, Nehru Park was developed as a children's park. It was inaugurated on 7th September, 1966 by the then Chief Minister of state, Shri Mohan Lal Sukhadia. The park gets its beauty from the fountain, pond, swings, flower beds, trees and plants here. Earlier this place had Bakhat Sagar pond. But its form deteriorated and the city's dirty water started collecting here. To solve the problems, its upper portion was converted into Bakhat Sagar residential colony, while the lower portion has this park now.

    Machia Safari Park

    During princely state's time there existed a Machia fort between Jodhpur city and Kayalana lake, where rulers used to come with their family for hunting the wild boars and black bucks. The forest, in which this fort was located, also known as Machia forest. Now, Rajasthan government has developed this forest as safari park which is known as Machia safari park. A Biological Park also has been established in this forest which is called Machia Biological Park. It was conceptualized in the year 1982-83. It is located 8 kms away from Jodhpur railway station on the western side of city. This park is basically the satellite zoo of old heritage zoo of Jodhpur. Machia Biological Park has an area of 41 ha. out of 604 ha area of Machia Forest Block. Almost all wild animals of Umed public park have been transfered to Machia.


  • Share On Social Media:
  • Museums and Academies of Erstwhile Princely State of Marwar

     21.08.2017
    Museums and Academies of Erstwhile Princely State of Marwar

    Museums and Academies of Erstwhile Princely State of Marwar


    Meherangarh Museum

    The Meherangarh museum has various pieces of art owned by the royal family of Jodhpur. Various types of arms and ammunition, royal dresses, swings, paintings of Jodhpur style, palanquins, turbans, musical instruments, cradles, tents etc. are an evidence of the rich heritage of Marwar. The beautiful camping tent which Maharaja Abhay Singh used in the battle field is one of the unique tents of the world. Besides, there is the 3 centuries old golden throne of Jodhpur rulers and statues and other items made of ivory. One of the tents of this museum was exhibited in the festival of India in New York (U.S.A.). This tent of 17 century was known as Lal Dera, which fascinated the Americans very much.

    Cannons Collection : The Fort also stores many historical guns (cannons). Many of these have historical events associated with them. Some of these cannons are named as Kilkila, Shambu Ban, Jamjama, Gubara, Dhuldhani, etc. Kilkila was made by Maharaja Ajit Singh when he was the Governor of Ahmedabad. It is also said that Ajit Singh had bought this cannon from Vijai Raj Bhandari for Rs. 1400 from Ahmebadad. It is said that women used to get aborted hearing the booming sounds of Kilkila and Jamjama. Shambhuban canon was acquired by king Abhay Singh by defeating Sar Buland Khan of Ahmedabad (1730 A.D.). It is also said that Abhay Singh bought this cannon from Surat. Karak Bijali was brought from Ghanerao during Ajit Singh's period. This cannon weighs 14 tonnes. Nusarat was obtained in 1730 A.D. by King Abhay Singh by defeating governor Sar Buland Khan, Sarkar Khan and Gajni Khan of Ahmedabad. "Gazni Khan" was acquired by king Gaj Singh from Jalore Fort when he attacked Jalore in 1607 A.D. One cannon was brought by Sir Partap Singh from China in 1901 A.D. during the reign of Sardar Singh, which can still be seen in the Fort. During King Bhim Singh's reign Mehrangarh had Nagpali, Magwa, Vyadhi, Meerak Chung, Meera Buksh, Rahsya kala and Gajak cannons. All the available cannons of British period have been preserved on the walls of the fort. One has the British crown made on it. This has many barrels, each barrel having holes like cannon from where cannon balls can be fired. Another gun made of fine metal has its front part like a fish's mouth, tail like a crocodile, feet and neck like that of a lion. This cannon has been kept in the Daulat Khana and is sent for international exhibitions. Cannons kept on wheeled trollies were called mobile cannons whereas those kept on the walls etc. of the fort were stationary.

    Elephant Haudah Section : This collection of gold and silver Haudahs or Ambaris is perhaps one of the best in the country. A notable and unique historical piece is the silver Haudah of the Mughal Emperor Shahjehan. This Haudah (Ambari) was presented by the Emperor as a mark of special honour to Maharaja Jaswant Singh I of Jodhpur with an elephant alongwith 100 horses on the 18th December 1657. It is an interesting Haudah following the patterns of Persian style with figures of lion, fish, peacock and a lady surrounded by floral designs, Besides, there are some typi¬cal Handahs of interest. All these have been displayed each on a rectangular platform mounted by 9 traditional flag colours, each having different colours, Crest and Mottos of former states of Rathore Dynasties, off shoot of Jodhpur House.

    Royal Costume Section : Ajit Vilas has a rich and supurb collection of Costumes of Maharajas, Maharanis and princes. Such as furgals, Angarakhis, skirts, achkans, Kashmiri Shawls and host of other exhibits of interest. In this section one can see a pair of historical pearl shoes of Anara Begum. She was the favourite Cuncubine of Maharaja Gaj Singh I of Jodhpur He was a Mansabdar of high rank in the court of Emperor Shahjehan early in the 17th century.

    Mahi Maratib : It was gifted by Shah Jahan to Gaj Singh in 1628 A.D., which used to be given only to the rulers having 5000 Mansabs. It has the mouth of a crocodile, shape of a fish and crown as a moon.

    Daulat Khana (Art Section) : Formerly it was in use for display of jewellery and later on as State Drawing Room. Now keeping in view of its originality, the central space has been utilised as Drawing Room with carved wooden furniture of Victorian period. The outer gallery has been used for display of rare objects of arts made of gold, silver, ivory, etc. in floor and wall show-cases.

    Maan Vilas (Armoury) : This section is unique with display of most selected varieties of arms and armour. Some of them are studded with real gems, sword-hills of jades, shields of gems and dealers. The Match-locks and flint-locks complete with gold and silver work on the barrels, were presented by the Mughal Emperors to the rulers of Jodhpur from time to time. Besides this, there are swords, kataris, bugdas attached with pistols and host other varieties can be seen here. There are some old historical heavy swords of the period ranging from 15th to 18th cenury A. D. The khanda of Rao Jodha, the founder of Jodhpur, is noteworthy, weighing over seven pounds. Collection of rare swords bearing Quranic verses and gold seals on the blade, is an outstanding historical piece.

    Folk Musical Instrument Section : This section pertains to the rare collection of folk musical instruments of Rajasthan, found in deep desert as well as from other places, are on display. Their tunes have been tape recorded along with the photographs of the musicians while singing or playing the instrument.

    Mandore Museum

    Mandore museum was established in 1968 in one of the old palaces of Janana garden. The museum exhibits many inscriptions, potraits, miniatures, handicrafts, remains of various civilizations and things related to body and natural science. All this has been exhibited, in different rooms.The statues section has statues and architectural remains from Mandore, Osiyan, Kiradu, Ghatiyala, Juna, Salawas and Jalore. One sub section has been made especially for Mandore. It houses statues and sculpted structures of Sun, Trivikram, Sursundari, Nat, Yaksha, Durga, Shiva, Kichak, Navgriha etc. from 9th-10th century. These remains show that the artists with religious feelings did not ignore reality in the creation of these artistic pieces.

    Mandore itself was famous for its aesthetics. All the ancient monuments in this sub-section speak further about their excellence in beauty, spirituality, simplicity, decency and expression. Two rectangular rock pieces named 'Arhat' are important monuments exhibited in the museum. One shows a horse rider and a few camel riders. Nearby there is a camel drinking water from the pond. This rock shows the old system of pulling water from the wells. The second rock depicts some soldiers in a chariot pulled by a horse and a few pawns.Two pillars of red stone from Mandore show the mutual attraction between man and woman. It has a few erotic figures in a circle, flowers and leaves and other attractive figures. The second pillar also depicts some erotic scenes with men dancing, singing and playing music. Thus erotic figures and depictions can be seen not only in Khajuraho, Bhubneshwar, Chittaur, Dwarka and Somnath temples, but even in the architecture of Mandore, because 7th to 13th century experienced a wave of such depictions in temples and these pillars are an example of that. The hair styles and dresses in these figures are very attractive.A Sarvatobhadra Ganesh statue obtained from Ghatiyala has been put on a pillar in the porch.

    In Ghatiyala, there is a pillar having Ganesh statues facing all four sides. This pillar was unscripted by Pratihar Kakkuk, brother of Bauk, the ruler of Mandore. Kakkuk had good relations with Marwar and Gujrat. A link to the history of Mandore, this inscription is dated V.S. 918 (862 A.D.).

    Sardar Government Museum, Jodhpur

    Sardar Government Museum, located in Public Park (Ummed Bagh) Jodhpur was established in 1909 and formally opened to public on 17 March, 1936. The museum is named after Maharaja Sardar Singh of Jodhpur. The collection consists of 397 stone sculptures, 10 inscriptions, 1951 miniature paintings, 12 terracotta, 32 metallic objects, 178 arms, 111703 coins, 4107 miscellaneous objects displayed in Archaeological Section, armory, art & craft and historical section. It preserves antiquarian objects which are divided into 22 categories as under: ivory, stone, khas, patwa, metal, arms, wood, leather work, lacquer work, pottery, alum, natural history, miscellaneous textiles, minerals, glass, chir, paintings, educational appliances, antiquity, mother of pearl, salt, numismatics. The prize possessions of the museum are— (1.) Two stone pillars from Mandore, supposed to be of Gupta period, presents various scenes from the life of Lord Krishna. (2.) Padampani Kubera image from Mandor. (3.) Yoga Narayana image (sitting) of 8th century A.D. from Didwana. (4.) Lord Vishnu image (standing) of 7th century A.D. from Pali. (5.) Jivant Swami Image (Standing) of 10th century A.D. from Nagaur district. (6.) Arab coins hoard (8,774). (7.) One Coin of Edward VIII.

    Government Museum, Pali

    Bangar Government Museum, Pali was opened to public in the year 1991. Exhibits of the museum include Costume and Jewellery of Garasia tribe, 326 stone sculptures, 10stone inscriptions, copper plates and 409 coins of medieval period, 22 miniature paintings, 4 terracottas, 3 metallic objects, 8 arms and 258 objects of miscellaneous nature.


    ACADEMIES

    Maharaja Man Singh Pustak Prakash

    The present collection of manuscripts in the royal library of Mehrangarh fort, was started by Maharaja Vijay Singh in 18th century. He was devotee of Vaishnavism. He was fond of paintings and music also. The manuscripts collected by him were mostly religious. This collection was further enriched and bulk of manuscripts, with variety of subjects was added by Maha¬raja Man Singh due to which it took the present form and it was named by him as Pustak Prakash. The Institution has a manuscript library of national importance. Some of the most rare and important oriental books are preserved in its collection. The library contains above 5000 volu¬mes of old manuscripts; 3300 granthas on different subject written in Sanskrit, and 2000 Hindi and Rajasthani granthas. The major portion of collection is in Sanskrit and Rajasthani written by the poets patronised by the Marwar rulers and only few of them have seen the light of the day.

    Rajasthani Shodh Sansthan, Jodhpur

    It is situated about five miles west of the city of Jodhpur in the compound of Choupasani School. The institute came into being in 1955 for the purpose of conducting a scientific study of the history of Rajasthani literature and culture. It has collected about 15,000 old manuscripts, 350 old paintings of Rajput style and thousands of folk songs and examples of folk literature. It has also published a Rajasthani dictionary in four parts and it also arranges to publish important theses on Rajasthan. It has facilities for research work also. Research scholars from India and abroad have availed of this facility so far. Twice a year scholars are invited to lecture on their speciality, at the institute. The organisation is recognised and aided by the Rajasthan Government.

    Rupayan Sansthan, Borunda

    This institute was established in 1961, in the village Borunda stituated at a distance about 100 kms from Jodhpur. Its aim is to collect and publish the folk lore of Rajasthan. In the beginning this endeavour was tentative but, soon it gathered momentum and 13,000 folk tales, 10,000 songs and thousands of proverbs and riddles have been collected. These have been documented through scripting the oral tradition or recording it. This documented material is then disseminated and made available to fellow researchers. It has published, in all, one thousand folk tales in a series entitled Batan-ri-phulwadi in ten volumes, each containing about 500 pages. In the field of music, thousands of songs have been documented. To make the documentation more authentic and vivid 12 songs were made into gramophone records. In association with the National Centre for the Performing Arts,in Bombay the institute made a short film of fifteen minutes in black and white strictly for archival purposes. The film manages to convey to the spectator a fair idea of the musical instruments and song styles and offers a glimpse into the folk legacy of Rajasthan. A monthly magazine devoted to folk culture is being brought out (Lok Sanskriti) by the institute since 1960.

    Rajasthan Oriental Research Institute, Jodhpur

    The institute was established in 1960. Valuable collections of manuscripts numbering about a lakh written in Sanskrit, Prakrit, Apabhramsa, Persian and other languages many valuable manuscripts like Vedas, Brahmanas, Upanishads, Vedanta, Darshanas, Jyotisha, Nyaya, Ayurveda, History etc. are preserved in the institute. Some of the manuscripts are extremely rare. The collection abounds with hundreds of extensively illustrated manuscripts comprising thousands of genuine paintings of brilliance, which flourished during the ancient medieval ages.

    The institute endeavours not only to preserve rare manuscripts but to publish them. Under the name of "Rajasthan Puratan Granthmala" a series of eighty works have so far come out. Catalogues of Sanskrit and Prakrit manuscripts were also published by the Institute under a scheme financed by the Government of India. Several Rajasthani works printed under the scheme "Development of Modern Indian Languages-Rajasthani". A scheme for the preservation and publication of important manuscripts in the Jain Granth Bhandars of Jaisalmer was also taken up by the Institute.In these collections are some manuscripts written on paper belonging to the 12th and 13th centuries.

    A good number of palm leaf manuscripts belonging to still earlier centuries are the main attraction of this treasure. Besides manuscripts, the institution has a useful reference library of printed books containing about 12,000 volumes relevant to higher researches. The institute has seven branch offices established at Jaipur, Alwar, Kota, Udaipur, Bikaner, Tonk and Chittaurgarh. Jodhpur branch has opened an art gallery for general visitors in which many charts, diagrams and calendars related to the tantrik, Jyotish and other subjects have been shown.

    Sangeet Natak Academy Jodhpur

    Sangeet Natak Academy Jodhpur was established in 1957 A.D. It has a vast collection of folk music instuments like Khanjari, Daf, Chang, Madal, Dhol, Damru, Nagara, Damama, Matta, Sarangi, Jantar, Ravan-Hattha, Kamayacha, Rawaz, Tandura, Ektara, Jhanjh, Manjeera, Thali, Khartal, Algoja, Bansi, Poongi, Shahanai, Satara, Mashak Nad, Morchang, Bhapang etc.

    Arna-Jharna Desert Museum

    Padmbhushan Komal kothari established this Desert Museum in outer area of Jodhpur city in recent years. A unique collection of brooms used in nearby villages, Puppets of Marwar area, and various types of arts, local flora and fauna are the speciallities of this museum.


  • Share On Social Media:
  • Different forms of Art and Early History of Rajput Style Painting

     22.07.2017
    Different forms of Art and Early History of Rajput Style  Painting

    Different forms of Art and Early History of Rajput Style  Painting

    Art is a cultured way of life. The experience of joy relating to the visible or invisible physical or astral body or sentiments being in real form, appear before human beings in expressive forms. That expression is termed art. 

    Indian View of Art  or Kala

    The Hindi synonym of 'art' known as 'Kala', is derived from Sanskrit language. It has been used in Sanskrit literature in numerous interpretations, in which the 16th part of a principal object, "a part of time", and the expected intelligence in performing any task deserves special mention. Before the advent of Bharat Muni, 'Kala' had been applied in almost all other acts of intelligence except poetry, and was a special world for such work of the intellect. Any useful business regarding life had ever been placed in the category of art. The best example of the application of the word is clearly discernible in the Natyashstra by Bharat Muni : "Na tajjanam na tachhilypam na vidyaa na saa kala." The word 'Kala' frequently used by Bharat Muni comes very near to fine art and architecture (Shilpa) is near to a useful art. In India all such knowledge and vocations requiring the slightest intelligence are termed 'Kala'.

    The Western view of art

    The Western view of art seems similar. Art is related to old French 'art' or Latin 'ars', whose meaning is to produce, to express or to adjust. Since the 13th century in England the word art has been used with the meaning intelligence. Since the 17th century the word has been associated with poetry, music, painting, icono¬graphy, architecture and the fine arts. According to place, time and circumstances, the word art has been used in numerous contexts, but still it has never been deprived of expressing the meaning of intelligent acts and thoughtful depiction. Whatever form of art we see, its main characteristic is that it is pleasing to the senses. It expresses the feelings and emotions of the artist and it can be interpreted in different ways by different people.

    Art is a strong form of communication

    Any type of art, essentially tells a story and it is a strong form of communication with another human being that is indirect but deeply profound. Art has a tendency to deeply move our soul and most masterpieces that we see in museums are a silent testimony to that. From time to time intellectuals have defined art in a manner which clearly echoes the meaning of fine art. To attain the exalted status of Shiva and express the beautiful form of truth, art is a powerful medium which according to the tastes and instincts of the artist has been conveyed from time to time for that eternal depiction. Hence through poetry, music, painting and iconography and through construction of splendid buildings, the artist from time to time made his special contribution to society.

    Among the above five arts painting occupies a unique status. Although there are many different forms of art, they can be divided into two classes- visual art and performing art. Visual art includes paintings, sculpture, literature, calligraphy, photography and architecture. Mehndi, Mahawar (Alata), Mandna, Rangoli and Sarvana (for Rakshabandhan) may also be considered as visual arts.

    Performing arts are all forms of dance, music, theater, opera and films. Another way that in which different art forms are classified are fine art, commercial art, modern art and applied art. However, such classifications are a little confusing since some of these art forms tend to overlap and what might be considered as applied art by one person can be considered as fine art by another. Marwar has bequeathed a rich artistic heritage to the cultural heritage of desert area. Indian art would be poorer without the artistic cultural legacy of Marwar. The folk-dances, folk-music, fine sculptures, attractive paintings and charming frescoes have greatly enriched the cultural heritage of land.

    Forms of Visual Arts

    Visual art can be defined as a form of art that uses any medium to represent the artist's idea, emotion and imagination. Visual arts like paintings, handicrafts, sculptures and architecture have evolved with time and different periods saw the emergence of different art movements. In previous chapter, we have studied about sculpture and architecture of Rajasthan. In this chapter we have taken paintings and handicrafts as the visual arts for our study.

    Painting : A chief Art

    Vishnudharmottara Puran says- In this world practice of Painting is the chief of all arts. (As Sumeru is the chief of mountains, As Garuda is the chief of those born out of eggs, As King is the chief of men, Even so in the world is the practice of Painting The chief of all arts. - Vishnudharmottara Puran, 10/3/39) The Puran further describes that the art of painting is considered a subtle means to pursue religion, pleasure and liberation. With this desire for happiness a painting is installed in the home. (Kala-naam pravarm chitram dharma kaamartha mokshdam, Mangalyam prathamam chetadgrihai yatra pratishatham. -Vishnudharmottara Puran, Chitrasutram, 43/38) Such sentiments have motivated the decoration of houses with drawings. Lines and colours are the medium of painting. On any infrasurface the artist could express his feelings through the application of lines and colours. Such infrasurface chiefly belongs to fresco, stone, wood, utensils and 'phalaks' of baked clay, ivory, leather, cloth, palm leaves and paper."

    The artist possesses a distinct characteristic to depict heights, distance and nearness on a plane surface in which he turns his imaginative ideas into visible paintings through the arrangement of colours and lines according to his capability. Hence it is said- "Poetry is a speaking picture and a picture is mute poetry." To create paintings artists have selected different media in accordance with circumstances of time and space and among them are frequently available paintings in the form of frescoes and scripts.

    Origin of Frescoes in Caves

    The art of frescoes belongs to the instinct of primitive human beings. Ancient cave paintings testify to this view. The frescoes in the caves of Ajanta, Ellora, Allania (Prehistoric paintings in caves on the banks of the Chambal near Kota are the oldest specimens of painting in Rajasthan) have attracted worldwide attention of art connoisseurs. Frescoes have been drawn in temples, palaces and cenotaphs. Frescoes have ever been an ancient tradition, and accordingly paintings have been produced with new techniques. The history of wall painting in Rajasthan is rich enough to provide a wide glimpse into the history and culture of this land. There is plethora of wall paintings documented and researched till now. But then there are a lot more waiting to be highlighted and researched over; in the havelis, palaces, forts, temples and other monuments of this vivid state. Merchant class built another kind of havelis, not architecturally noteworthy, but magnificently decorated with murals. Almost every available surface of the walls was covered with paintings, depicting religious and social themes. The dry desert climate of the area has ensured the survival of these paintings and they remain in a remarkably good state of preservation. An interesting facet of these frescoed havelis was that over the years the artists became more ambitious in their range of subjects; having heard of memsahibs who drove cars, of steam engines and trains that carried large numbers of travellers, of the fashionable dress of the Raj, but without having seen any of these wonders for themselves, they painted these subjects as they were described to them or as they had been depicted in pictures that came their way. The results are sometimes hilarious, but almost always imaginative and original.

    Tradition of Script Painting

    The tradition of script painting is very old. Drawing of Padd and Picchavai is done even today in Rajasthan. In regard to script paintings, a Tantric text of Buddhism titled Aray Manjushri Kalp says drawing is to be done on clean white cloth which has borders on both sides- Silk cloth is prohibited for this purpose. Script paintings are available in two forms as Padd or Picchavai scrolls. Padds are based on stories of folk gods while Picchavais relate to Krishna-Lila. Kundalitpat or scrolls have been made with less width and more length. The whole text has been painted in this scroll.

    Development of Manuscript Painting on Bhurj Leaves

    In ancient days the tradition of writing poetry and making drawings on bhurj leaves or palm leaves was kept alive. This resulted in the abundance of pictorial texts preserved in many Jain collections.( From the point of view of the oldest paintings the Jain collections of Jaisalmer and Khambat deserve special mention) The themes of the pictorial texts mostly relate to Jainism. Among them Kalpa Sutra, Kalikacharya Kathanak and Neimnath Charitra deserve special mention. Texts compiled on palm leaves had a definite dimension and the reverse sides of different leaves had been written or painted on. Such leaves had been compiled as texts after making holes in the centre. The invention of paper in the 12th century ushered in a new era in the compi¬lation of pictorial texts. Uttarayan Sutra of V.S. 1277 and Nyaya, Tatparya-Tikka compiled by Vachaspati Mishra in V.S. 1270 and painted on paper are preserved in the Granth-Bhandar of Jaisalmer.

    Credit for encouraging this tradition goes to the Sagun-Bhakti movement and the Mughal rulers of India. The coming of Mughal rule popularised the tradition of text painting greatly. Two artists, Sayid Ali and Abdul Samad, from Persia accompanied Humayun to India and painted the text Ameer Hamza. Besides Babar-Nama, Akbar-Nama, Rajjam-Nama and Tuti-Nama had also painted religious texts like Mahabharat, Ramayan and Anwar-a-Suhali (Panchatantra). After the advent of Akbar the tradition of manuscript painting gathered momentum. The Mughal school, the Rajasthani school and the Pahari school were important links in the art of painting texts based upon Ram Kavya, Krishna Kavya, Sufi Kavya, Riti Kavya, Barah-Masa, Ritu-Varnan, Rag-Ragini, which are still available.

    Development of Miniatures style of Painting

    Miniature art is an offshoot of manuscript painting. On the basis of imagination or poetical sentiments, providing a heading or without a title, such miniatures are available in large numbers in numerous museums and private collections. Laghuchitra or miniature painting is the heritage of Rajasthani painting.

    Rajasthani Painting Nomenclature

    With regard to the nomenclature of Rajasthani painting, scholars hold varied opinion. Some call it Rajput painting and others Rajasthani painting. Ananda Coomaraswamy was the first scholar who scientifically classified Rajasthani painting in his book titled Rajput Painting in 1916. According to him, the theme of Rajput painting relates to Rajputana and the hill states of Punjab. The administrators of these states, often belonging to the Rajput clan, had termed these paintings Rajput. According to Coomaraswamy, Rajasthani painting spread widely from Bikaner to the border of Gujarat and from Jodhpur to Gwalior and Ujjain. Amber, Aurachha, Udaipur, Bikaner and Ujjain had earned the reputation of being centres of artistic activities. Rajputana has been a centre of diverse princely indige¬nous states, but the expansion of Rajasthani painting had taken place from Bundelkhand to Gujarat and states ruled by Pahari Rajputs, that is why the name Rajput painting seems plausible." Vachaspati Garrola had recognised only Rajasthani painting under the auspices of the Rajput style of painting, which seems to be more ambiguous.

    Development of Rajasthani Painting, 6
    th to 12th Century A.D.

    Tibetan historian Tara Nath (l6th century) refers to an artist named Shri Rangdhar who lived in Maru Pradesh (Marwar) in the 7th century, but paintings of this period are not available. The period from the 6th century to the 12th century was a great landmark in the history of Rajasthan. From the 8th to the 10th centuries this province was termed Gurjaratra, hence with the development of art and other vocations painting might have flourished here. Among available compilations, pictorial Kalpa-Sutra (Pls. 1, 2) authored by Bhadrabhau Swami in V.S. 1216 is the oldest available artistic text of India.Dr. Goetz presented his research papers, which throw light on history of Rajasthani paintings. Karl Khandalawala discussed in detail the origin and development of this painting.Scholars like Raikrishan Dass, Pramod Chandra, Sangram Singh, Satya Prakash, Anand Krishan, Hiren Mukherji and others also published scholarly articles from time to time which highlight details of the origin and growth of Rajasthani painting. On the basis of this research and many available ancient paintings, it is now generally admitted that Rajasthani painting is a significant link with traditional Indian painting. Around 1450 A.D. one copy of Geet-Govind and two of Bal-Gopal-Stuti had been painted in Western India. This is the first pictorial text of Lord Krishna which comprises the first seeds of preliminary Rajasthani painting.

    Apbhransh style of Painting, 
    15th Century A.D.

    In 1451 A.D., Basant Vilas painted in the Apbhransh style, whose famous background script was compiled by Acharya Ratnagiri in Ahmedabad, makes special mention of the origin of Rajasthani painting. Up to the 15th century this style of painting flourished in Rajasthan. Using Jain and later Jain texts as the basis on which the painting was done, this may be termed the Jain style, Gujarat style, Western India style or Apbhransh style. Undoubtedly, the period from the 7th century to the 15th century saw an era of impressive growth of painting, iconography and architecture in Rajasthan devel¬oped from the synthesis of original art and the traditions of Ajanta-Ellora. From this point no distinction had ever been made between the Rajasthan and Gujarat styles. In these paintings faces are savachashma, noses resembling that of Garuda, tall but stiff figures, highly embossed breasts, mechanical movements and poses, clouds, trees, mountains and rivers are depicted. Red and yellow colours have been used frequently.

    Amended form of Rajasthani painting, 15th Century A.D.

    The art of coloured paintings was developed in 15th century A. D. It is difficult to tell where preliminary Rajasthani painting flourished in the 15th century, but on the basis of other pictorial texts it may be stated that the amended form of Rajasthani painting of that age had developed with some distinct features. Adi Puran, decorated with 417 paintings, was a text in the Gujarati style compiled in 1540. It was a beacon in the annals of Indian painting. In pictorial Chorpancha-Sika and Geet-Govind texts of that age, this school of painting was appreciably represented. Regarding Rajasthani paintings, two very significant texts are available. They are based on the Bhagwad. The first in 1598 and the other in 1610 had probably been painted somewhere in Rajasthan. In them developed the shape of Rajasthani painting with its special characteristics that had emerged.

    Rajput style of Painting

    Some scholars recognise the Gujarati style as the mother of Rajasthani painting and its guiding spirit. Gujarat was a principal centre where Rajasthani painting acquired its prominent status. The Gujarat style gave birth to the Rajput style, that rare beauty visible in drawings of mountain, river, sea, fire, cloud, tree in the Rajput style originated from the Gujarat style. In regard to the impact of Jain art, many scholars stress the view that it made a significant contribution to the growth of Hindu-Rajput art. Jain art was responsible for incorporating creeper foliage in Indian painting. Later, having surrendered the traditional heritance to the Rajput style, Jain art was lost in oblivion. Jain art does not represent the best art of its period. Hence it is argued that it might have surrendered its traditions to the Rajput style, but it would be a great blunder on our part to admit this view.

    Rajasthani painting in 18th Century A.D.

    The Rajasthani style of painting reached its zenith during the second half of the 18th century. Many styles vied with each other to attain the honour of being crowned as national but it was the fortune of Rajasthani style that it achieved this enviable position. The centres furthering and dealing with the Rajasthani style sprang up in many parts of the country. The Mughal School itself had been absorbed by it. In the Deccan, the Rajasthani school had travelled to Maharashtra in the last quarter of the 18th century and thence to Mysore, Tanjore and Ramesvaram.'' In the 19th century because of many reasons the Rajasthani style lost its original glory and degenerated into a coarse art devoid of vitality, vigour and harmony.

    Classification of Painting Schools

    The distinct characteristic of painting are termed the style of that particular region. In this way, several styles came into prominence in Rajasthan, notably the Mewar, Marwar, Kishangarh, Bundi, Kota, Jaipur, and Alwar schools had achieved great ascendancy. Rajasthani painting may be studied in four parts. In actual practice it has four principal schools in which many styles and sub styles flourished and influenced each other-

    (1) The Mewar school, comprising Chavand, Udaipur, Devgarh, Nathdwara, Sawar styles and sub styles.

    (2) The Marwar school, comprising Jodhpur, Bikaner, Kishangarh, Jaisalmer, Pali, Nagaur, Ghanerao styles and sub styles.

    (3) The Hadoti school, comprising Bundi, Kota, Jhalawar styles and substyls.

    (4) The Dhundar school, comprising Amber, Jaipur, Shekhawati, Uniara, Alwar styles and sub styles.

    In the medieval age it was quite natural for the small and big states of Rajasthan and the neighbouring states to influence each other in the domain of culture.


  • Share On Social Media:
Categories
SIGN IN
Or sign in with
 
×
Forgot Password
×
SIGN UP
Already a user ?
×